Experimental Stroke


by

Kunlin Jin

DOI: 10.2174/97816080500171090101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-001-7, 2008
ISBN: 978-1-60805-666-8

  
  


Indexed in: Scopus

This eBook compiles the efforts of 20 experts in the field to review the latest advances in experimental stroke, with its strong empha...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Foreword , Pp. i

Pak H. Chan

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Preface , Pp. ii

Kunlin Jin and Guo-Yuan Yang

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Contributors , Pp. iii-v (3)

Kunlin Jin and Guo-Yuan Yang

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Calpain Modulation of Programmed Cell Death Pathways Following Cerebral Ischemia , Pp. 1-8 (8)

P. S. Vosler and J. Chen

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Calcium-permeable Ion Channels and Ischemic Brain Injury , Pp. 9-17 (9)

Theresa A. Lusardi, Xiangping Chu and Zhi-Gang Xiong

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The Protective Effect of Ischemic Postconditioning Against Ischemic Brain Injury , Pp. 18-25 (8)

Heng Zhao

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Neovascularization Following Cerebral Ischemia , Pp. 26-37 (12)

Rodney Allanigue Gabriel and Guo-Yuan Yang

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Role of Matrix Metalloproteinases After Stroke: From Basic Research to Clinical Impact , Pp. 38-45 (8)

Anna Rosell, Eng H. Lo and Xiaoying Wang

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Blood Brain Barrier Dysfunction and the Endothelin System in Cerebral Ischemia , Pp. 46-51 (6)

Samuel W. Cramer, Lin Li and Dandan Sun

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Research Progress of Hypothermia: Selective Intra-arterial Infusion and Regional Brain Cooling in Acute Stroke Therapy , Pp. 52-62 (11)

Yuchuan Ding and Justin Charles Clark

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Stem Cell Transplantation and Cerebral Ischemia , Pp. 63-73 (11)

Christine L. Keogh, Shan Ping Yu and Ling Wei

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Post-ischemic Neurogenesis and Brain Repair: Growth Factors and Cytokines , Pp. 74-82 (9)

Yi-Ping Yan, Raghu Vemuganti and Robert J. Dempsey

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Brain Aging, Neurogenesis and Experimental Stroke , Pp. 83-89 (7)

Kunlin Jin

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Erythropoietin and Ischemic Brain Remodeling , Pp. 90-93 (4)

Zheng Gang Zhang and Michael Chopp

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Potential MRI Methodologies and Treatment of Stroke , Pp. 94-99 (6)

Quan Jiang

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The Use of a Global Statistical Approach for the Design and Data Analysis of Clinical Trials with Multiple Primary Outcomes , Pp. 100-108 (9)

Peng Huang, Robert F. Woolson and Ann-Charlotte Granholm

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Index , Pp. 109-112 (4)

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Foreword

Stroke remains the third leading cause of death in the United States. Even among survivors, disability due to hemiparesis, gait disorders, aphasia and other deficits is common and about 20% of stroke survivors require institutional care at 6 months post-stroke. This long-term disability contributes to the average lifetime cost for stroke care of ~$140,000 and an annual national cost of ~$54 billion. The most recent major advance in clinical ischemic stroke treatment, the use of thrombolytic agents to dissolve clots in the acute aftermath of stroke, appears to be effective only within the first 3 hours after onset of symptoms; therefore, widely effective treatment for stroke remains elusive, and remains one of the biggest medical challenges in the 21st century.

This book compiles the efforts of 13 well-established experts in the stroke field in reviewing the latest advances in the field, with strong emphasis on neurogenesis, angiogenesis and neuroprotection after ischemic stroke. Vosler and Chen begin with a comprehensive review of common cell death pathways, emphasizing how calpain can modify both intrinsic and extrinsic cell death pathways as well as caspase-independent pathways after experimental stroke. Excessive Ca2+ accumulation in neurons is essential for neuronal injury after cerebral ischemia. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the toxic Ca2+ loading remain elusive. The chapter by Lusardi et al describes the role of several major Ca2+-permeable cation channels in glutamate-dependent and independent Ca2+ toxicity associated with cerebral ischemia. Familiarity with the mechanisms of programmed neuronal death pathways is critical for shaping our understanding of neuronal death caused by cerebral ischemia. Studies have demonstrated pre-conditioning’s protection against brain ischemia. Zhao introduces the current findings on the protective effect of post-conditioning in global and focal ischemia in both in vivo and in vitro models. In addition, the potential protective mechanisms of post-conditioning are also reviewed. The chapter by Gabriel and Yang is an excellent summary of neovascularization, including factors involved, after stroke. Neurovascular matrix breakdown and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption play critical roles in the risk of hemorrhage and edema formation. Rosell et al summarize the pathophysiologic actions of Matrix Metalloproteinases following cerebral ischemia, and Cramer and Sun examine the interplay between the BBB and the endothelin system in cerebral ischemia. Ding and Clark review recent research progress in hypothermia in the animal model. Neural stem cells may potentially help repair the damaged brain after cerebral ischemia. Keogh et al cover recent advancements in neurogenesis and exogenous stem cell transplantation, and Yan et al summarize the role of growth factors and cytokines in the regulation of neurogenesis following cerebral ischemia. Stroke is a major cause of death and disability in the elderly; therefore, a better understanding of how age affects the response to therapeutic interventions after stroke is crucial for the rational development of effective treatment. Jin integrates what is known about the responses of endogenous neural stem cells residing in the neurogenic regions of aged brain to experimental ischemic stroke. Zhang and Chopp provide the current data on the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) and carbamylated EPO on neurogenesis and angiogenesis in ischemic brain. Jiang introduces the application of new MRI methodologies to critical issues related to the treatment of stroke, including their potential in predicting and detecting hemorrhagic transformation as well as staging ischemic tissue. Huang et al introduce a new useful global statistical test technique and the corresponding global treatment for assessing treatment’s global preference when multiple outcomes are evaluated together.

This book may fall short of covering all major areas of the latest research in the experimental stroke field. However, we have endeavored to include examples of some of the most heavily studied areas, which are of interest to a broad range of investigators and researchers studying stroke.

We would like to thank Bentham Science Publishers, particularly Director Mahmood Alam and Manager Bushra Siddiqui for their support and efforts. We also greatly appreciate all authors and co-authors for their hard work and dedication that have made this volume possible. It is our hope that this book provides valuable information for all interested neuroscientists, pharmaceutical scientists, neuroradiologists, and clinicians as well as medical students.

Kunlin Jin, M.D.,Ph.D
Associate Research Professor
San Francisco, California, USA

Gao-Yong Yang, M.D.,Ph.D
Professor
San Francisco, California, USA


Preface

Stroke is a global health problem affecting approximately 15 million people annually throughout the world and about 700,000 people in the USA. It is the third leading cause of death and the most common cause of disability in most developed countries. Although extensive research in basic and preclinical studies has been done and significant progress is being made toward an understanding of the pathophysiology and injury mechanisms and treatment of stroke, there is no comprehensive reference or book that compiles the forefront issues in stroke research.

This is the first experimental reference book of its kind, in which a panel of leading experts specifically addresses current knowledge of both basic science and clinical perspectives in the field of ischemic stroke. Evidently, the book is timely. In the following fifteen chapters, various authors give a comprehensive review of experimental stroke, covering the latest advances such as programmed cell death pathways following cerebral ischemia, application of exogenous and endogenous neural stem cells in experimental stroke models, neurogenesis factors, Ca2+-permeable cation channels in glutamate-dependent and independent Ca2+ toxicity after stroke, protective effect of postconditioning after global and focal ischemia, neovascularization after stroke, blood-brain barrier and matrix metalloproteinases after cerebral ischemia, and finally, the application of new MRI methodologies and useful global statistical test techniques for clinical trials.

This book is an excellent reference work for a wide range of neuroscientists, physicians and neurologists, as well as for research scientists investigating the underlying neuropathophy-siology after ischemic stroke.

Pak H. Chan
Stanford University

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Associate Research Professor Kunlin Jin
San Francisco
California
USA




Co-Editor(s):
Guo-Yuan Yang
San Francisco
California
USA




Contributor(s):
Jun Chen
Professor, Department of Neurology, Department of Pharmacology
Center for Neuroscience University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh
Pennsylvania
USA


Michael Chopp
Professor, Departments of Neurology
Henry Ford Health Sciences Center
Detroit
Michigan, 48202
USA


Xiangping Chu
Assistant Professor, Robert S. Dow Neurobiology Laboratories
Legacy Research
Portland
OR, 97232
USA


Justin Charles Clark
Neurosurgery resident, Department of Neurosurgery
the Barrow Neurological Institute
Phoenix
AZ
USA


Samuel W Cramer
Depts. of Neurosurgery
University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health
Madison
WI, 53792
USA


Robert J Dempsey
Professor and Chairman, Department of Neurological Surgery, and Cardiovascular Research Center
University of Wisconsin-Madison
WI, 53792
USA


Yuchuan Ding
Associate Professor, Director of Research, Neurosurgical Sciences, Department of Neurosurgery
Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
San Antonio
TX, 78229-3900
USA


Rodney Allanigue Gabriel
Center for Cerebrovascular Research, Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care
University of California
San Francisco
CA
USA


Ann-Charlotte Granholm
Professor, Department of Neurosciences and the Center on Aging
Medical University of South Carolina
Charleston
SC, 29425
USA


Peng Huang
Associate Professor, Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics and Epidemiology
Medical University of South Carolina
Charleston
SC, 29425
USA


Quan Jiang
Henry Ford Hospital, NMR Laboratory, Neurology Department
Detroit
MI, 48202
USA


Kunlin Jin
Associate Research Professor, Buck Institute for Age Research
California
CA, 94945
USA


Christine L. Keogh
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Medical University of South Carolina
Charleston
SC, 29464
USA


Eng H. Lo
Professor, Neuroprotection Research Laboratory, Departments of Radiology and Neurology
Massachusetts General Hospital, and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School
Boston
MA, 01810



Theresa A Lusardi
Research Associate, Robert S. Dow Neurobiology Laboratories
Legacy Research
Portland
OR, 97232
USA


Anna Rosell
Postdoctoral fellow, Neuroprotection Research Laboratory, Departments of Radiology and Neurology
Massachusetts General Hospital, and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School
Boston
MA, 01810



Dandan Sun
Professor, Department of Neurosurgery and Physiology, Neuroscience Training Program
University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health
Madison
WI, 53792
USA


Raghu Vemuganti
Assistant Professor, Department of Neurological Surgery
Neuroscience Training Program and Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison
WI, 53792
USA


P. S. Vosler
Department of Neurology, and Center for Neuroscience
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
Pittsburgh
Pennsylvania
USA


Xiaoying Wang
Assistant Professor, Neuroprotection Research Laboratory, Departments of Radiology and Neurology
Massachusetts General Hospital, and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School
Boston
MA, 01810



Ling Wei
Professor, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Medical University of South Carolina
Charleston
SC, 29464
USA


Robert F. Woolson
Professor, Director of Collaborative Unit, Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics and Epidemiology
Medical University of South Carolina
Charleston
SC, 29425
USA


Zhi-Gang Xiong
Senior Scientist, Robert S. Dow Neurobiology Laboratories, Legacy Research
Legacy Research
Portland
OR, 97232
USA


Guo-Yuan Yang
Professor, Center for Cerebrovascular Research, Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care
University of California
San Francisco
CA
USA


Yi-Ping Yan
Assistant Professor, Department of Neurological Surgery
University of Wisconsin-Madison
WI, 53792



Shan Ping Yu
Professor, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Medical University of South Carolina
Charleston
SC, 29464
USA


Zheng Gang Zhang
Senior Staff, Departments of Neurology
Henry Ford Health Sciences Center
Detroit
Michigan , 48202
USA


Heng Zhao
Assistant Professor, Department of Neurosurgery
Stanford University School of Medicine
Stanford
CA , 94305-5327
USA




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