Advances in Biomedical Sciences and Engineering


by

S. C. Tjong

DOI: 10.2174/97816080504061090101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-040-6, 2009
ISBN: 978-1-60805-607-1

  
  


Indexed in: Scopus

This authoritative reference provides update information on the fundamental aspects and applications of biomaterials and biomedical sc...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Preface , Pp. i

S C Tjong
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Foreword , Pp. ii

J KL Lai
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Contributors , Pp. iii-iv (2)

S C Tjong
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Metallic Implants for Spinal Deformity Correction , Pp. 1-44 (44)

Kelvin Wai-Kwok Yeung, Kenneth MC Cheung, Keith Dip-Kei Luk and Chi Yuan Chung
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Plasma Surface Modification of Nickel Titanium Shape Memory Alloys , Pp. 45-68 (24)

Kelvin Wai-Kwok Yeung, Kenneth MC Cheung, Keith Dip-Kei Luk, Shuilin Wu, Xuanyong Liu, Chenglin Chu, Chi Yuan Chung and Paul Kim-Ho Chu
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Strontium Containing Bioactive Bone Cement for Orthopedic Applications , Pp. 69-81 (13)

Zhaoyang Li, Keith Dip-Kei Luk and William Weijia Lu
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Synthesis and Properties of Nano-Hydroxyapatite/ Polymer Nanocomposites for Bone Tissue Engineering , Pp. 82-142 (61)

Sie Chin Tjong
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Fabrication, Mechanical Property and Biocompatibility of Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Nanocomposites , Pp. 143-203 (61)

Sie Chin Tjong
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Response of Cells to Ionizing Radiation , Pp. 204-262 (59)

Wei Han and Kwan Ngok Yu
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In Vivo Studies of α-Particle Radiation Effects Using Zebrafish Embryos , Pp. 263-283 (21)

Kwan Ngok Yu and Shuk Han Cheng
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Evaluation of In Vivo Toxicity of Carbon Nanotubes in Zebrafish , Pp. 284-315 (32)

Jinping Cheng and Shuk Han Cheng
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Author Index , Pp. 316-318 (3)

S C Tjong
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Subject Index , Pp. 319-320 (2)

S C Tjong
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Foreword

The design and development of biomaterials with good biocompatibility and mechanical properties to replace defective bones are of profound technological importance. Advanced nitinol alloys and polymer-based nanocomposites have potential applications as spinal and load-bearing implant biomaterials in orthopedics. The nitinol alloys exhibit superelasticity and shape memory effect. By implanting nitinol alloys into patients with severe scoliosis, the deformity can be safely corrected. Poly (ether ether ketone) nanocomposites reinforced with low loading level of carbon nanotubes display strength and stiffness closely matching those of cortical bone. This monograph provides the latest development and topics in biomedical science and engineering. Focusing exclusively on the fundamental aspects and applications of biomaterials and biomedical sciences, this authoritative reference:

  • Presents the design philosophy of spinal implants for scoliosis correction;
  • Introduces nitinol alloys with superelasticity and shape memory effect, and their clinical applications;
  • Describes the plasma immersion ion implantation of NiTi shape memory alloys;
  • Includes bioactive bone cement for orthopedic applications;
  • Covers new research trends in polymer nanocomposites including nano-hydroxyapaptite/polymer and carbon nanotube/polymer biocomposites;
  • Reviews the biocompatibility of electrospun nanocomposite scaffolds;
  • Discusses responses of biological cells upon exposure to ionizing radiation; and Evaluates in vivo toxicity of carbon nanotubes in zebrafish embryos.

With chapters contributed by eminent scientists and surgeons in Hong Kong specializing in biophysics, biomaterials, biomedical engineering and orthopedics, this is a useful reference for scientists, biomedical engineers, medical practitioners and medical technologists

J KL Lai CEng CPhys FIMMM FIMechE FInstP (UK)
Chair Professor in Materials Science
City University of Hong Kong


Preface

Nowadays, there is an increasing need for orthopedic implants globally due to the large number of patients suffering from bone cancer, traffic accidents, other bone injuries and defects. The development of novel biomaterials that mimic the structure and function of human bones is a key challenge for materials scientists. Recently, NiTi alloys have attracted considerable attention because of their distinctive shape memory effect and superelasticity as well as biocompatibility with human bones. These unique characteristics enable nitinol alloys to correct deformities in patients suffering from scoliosis by implantation. However, several issues need to be solved and addressed in order to use the materials more safely. Release of nickel ions from nitinol alloys upon exposure to human body fluid is one of the major concerns since it can induce allergic reactions. Plasma immersion ion implantation of nitinol alloys with selected ions is found to be an effective tool to mitigate nickel release and to improve the biocompatibility, corrosion and wear resistance of the alloys. Bone is a biocomposite consisting of the collagen matrix and hydroxyapatite nanocrystals. Bone cell adhesion and proliferation are markedly enhanced on the surface of nanomaterials. In this regard, hydroxyapatite nanocrystals and carbon nanotubes are ideal reinforcement materials for polymers. The resulting nanocomposites show potential applications as load bearing biomaterials and scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. This book overviews the latest development of nitinol and polymer nanocomposites in orthopedic applications. A detailed description of their fabrication, mechanical behavior, biocompatibility and/or clinical implantation is presented. Furthermore, the responses of biological cells and zebrafish embryos upon exposure to ionizing radiation are given. Particular attention is also paid to potential hazards of introducing carbon nanotubes to zebrafish embryos. In recent years, zebrafish,Danio rerio, a small vertebrate from Southeast Asia, has become a preferred model for studying human bone structure and disease. To the best of our knowledge, there is currently no single book that deals exclusively with the fundamental issues and properties of advanced biomaterials as well as responses of biological cells to radiation and potential cytotoxicity of using carbon nanotubes.

In general, this book concentrates on the state-of-the-art development and topics in biomedical science and engineering. The chapters of this book were written by eminent scientists and surgeons specializing in materials science, biology, biophysics, biomedical engineering and orthopedics. This book serves as an important and useful reference source for biologists, chemists, physicists, materials scientists, biomedical engineers, dentists, medical practitioners, medical technologists and graduate students.

S C Tjong CEng CSci FIMMM (UK)
Professor
City University of Hong Kong

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
S. C. Tjong
City University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong




Contributor(s):
Jinping Cheng
Department of Biology and Chemistry
City University of Hong Kong
Tat Chee Avenue
Kowloon
Hong Kong


Shuk Han Cheng
Associate Professor, Department of Biology and Chemistry
City University of Hong Kong
Tat Chee Avenue
Kowloon
Hong Kong


Kenneth M. C. Cheung
Clinical Professor, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology
The University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong


Chenglin Chu
Department of Physics and Materials Science
City University of Hong Kong
Kowloon
Hong Kong


Paul Kim-Ho Chu
Professor (Chair), Department of Physics and Materials Science
City University of Hong Kong
Tat Chee Avenue
Kowloon
Hong Kong


Jonathan Chi Yuen Chung
Associate Professor, Department of Physics and Materials Science
City University of Hong Kong
Tat Chee Avenue
Kowloon
Hong Kong


Wei Han
Department of Physics and Materials Science
City University of Hong Kong
Tat Chee Avenue
Kowloon
Hong Kong


Zhaoyang Li
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology
The University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong


Xuanyong Liu
Department of Physics and Materials Science
City University of Hong Kong
Tat Chee Avenue
Kowloon
Hong Kong


William Weijia Lu
Associate Professor, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology
The University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong


Keith Dip-Kei Luk
Head and Professor (Chair) of Orthopedic Surgery, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology
The University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong


Sie Chin Tjong
Professor, Department of Physics and Materials Science
City University of Hong Kong
Tat Chee Avenue
Kowloon
Hong Kong


Shuilin Wu
Department of Physics and Materials Science
City University of Hong Kong
Tat Chee Avenue
Kowloon
Hong Kong


Kelvin Wai-Kwok Yeung
Assistant Professor, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology
The University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong


Kwan Ngok Yu
Professor, Department of Physics and Materials Science
City University of Hong Kong
Tat Chee Avenue
Kowloon
Hong Kong




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