Social Determinants, Health Equity and Human Development


by

Boutayeb Abdesslam

DOI: 10.2174/97816080506661090101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-066-6, 2009
ISBN: 978-1-60805-324-7



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Indexed in: Scopus

A refreshing and useful resource for understanding the multidimensional aspects linking social determinants to health equity and devel...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i

E. H. Twizell

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Preface

- Pp. ii

Boutayeb Abdesslam

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Contributors

- Pp. iii

Boutayeb A.

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Measurements and Indicators: Definitions, Concepts and Examples

- Pp. 1-11 (11)

Abdesslam Boutayeb and Saber Boutayeb

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Health Risks: Illustrating the Link between Social Determinants, Health Equity and Development

- Pp. 12-17 (6)

Abdesslam Boutayeb

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A Decade of Equity: A Selection of Recent Bibliography on Equity and Social Determinants of Health

- Pp. 18-42 (25)

Abdesslam Boutayeb and Saber Boutayeb

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Equity and Disease Burden

- Pp. 43-49 (7)

Abdesslam Boutayeb and Saber Boutayeb

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Obesity and Diabetes

- Pp. 50-55 (6)

A. Boutayeb, S. Mehdad, N. Mokhtar and H. Aguenaou

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Modelling for the Dynamics and the Burden of Dengue: A Review

- Pp. 56-61 (6)

Mohammed Derouich and Abdesslam Boutayeb

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Inequalities and Disparities in North Africa

- Pp. 62-73 (12)

Saber Boutayeb, Abdesslam Boutayeb and Youssef Bensouda

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Fifty Years of Human Development in Morocco: The Necessity of Equity Analysis

- Pp. 74-77 (4)

Abdesslam Boutayeb

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Children’s Rights: A Multitude of Conventions and Declarations for a Miserable Situation

- Pp. 78-86 (9)

Abdesslam Boutayeb

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Author Index

- Pp. 87-92 (6)

Boutayeb A.

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Subject Index

- Pp. 93-95 (3)

Boutayeb A.

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Foreword

Satellite television has for many years brought to the attention of the world, the plight of the citizens of less-developed countries who do not have the benefits of a good quality healthcare system. There is a distinction to be made between rich countries that do not provide a state-run system for their poorer citizens and those countries that cannot provide such care because their economies are not sufficiently strong to meet the costs involved. The book concentrates on the latter, and the contributors highlight the widening gap between the quality of healthcare services available in poor and rich countries.

In the recent past, improving the quality of healthcare was invariably a low priority for policy makers in developing countries where, additionally, government expenditure often benefitted the country's richest people more than its poorest, in absolute terms. In the second half of the last century, for which data are available, achievements in human development worldwide were uneven and were characterized by significant regional variations within less-developed countries. Large numbers of poor people in remote regions still have to travel huge distances to reach the nearest health facility, and then face lengthy delays in long queues to see a doctor or nurse. This contrasts sharply with urban populations, including those in poorer countries. These observations apply especially to the continents of Africa, Oceania, South America and Asia, all of which have less-developed countries within their borders.

In the developed world, dramatic changes are occurring in the delivery of healthcare. These changes are driven by economic factors, political and consumer will, ageing populations, demographic spreads, improved healthcare methods, and greater expectations. In the less-developed world, change is much slower but there are signs in some of these countries that the development of technology to support tele-medicine and e-health systems is quickening, thanks to the provision of data communication systems and mobile telephone networks. These have aided significantly the overworked key staff in the health services. There is a need to provide key aid workers, including paramedics, to health services in developing countries who have the necessary blend of technical skills and managerial flair to initiate and manage the introduction of (donated) new technologies. The introduction of computer networks worldwide will enable the governments of less-developed countries to provide a greater level of service nearer to the patient, by setting-up electronic links to consultants many hundreds of kilometres away in regional hubs.

The contributors to this book have, collectively, many years' experience of charting, observing, measuring, analysing, and predicting the outcomes of the provision of healthcare in North Africa, particularly Morocco, and, in their contributions, they show a thorough understanding of the continent's needs. It is to be hoped that, in the coming decades, governments will be able to provide what is needed to stave off the likely disasters associated with poor healthcare and other avoidable health-related factors that have a bearing on a nation's prosperity. Governments of countries on other continents may wish to heed the warnings and predictions reported in this book, for they have a significant bearing on the future and well-being of their people, too.

E.H. Twizell
Professor Emeritus
Brunel University
UK


Preface

The year 2008 marked the celebration of three important events related to health: the 60th anniversary of the creation of the World Health Organization, the 60th anniversary of the Human Right Declaration and the 30th anniversary of the Declaration of Alma Ata on primary health care. These three anniversaries coincide with the renewal hope in public health to reach the goal of "Health for All". Worldwide, many voices were raised to stress that the gap in access to health services is becoming wider and wider instead of narrowing. Today more than ever, the call is for justice in health between and within countries. The WHO Report 2008 and the declaration released by the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health are just two sources amongst many others dealing with social inequalities and equity in health, stressing that health is a human right and not a private commodity.

Studies in developed and developing countries have shown that the poor suffer more from high rates of illness than the rich. Lack of food, poor housing, unclean water, inappropriate sanitation, environment degradation, unsafe sex and difficult access to health services and health personnel are all behind infectious diseases and malnutrition. Overweight, smoking, alcohol, hypertension, and physical inactivity are the major risks linked to non-communicable diseases.

Although the last decade has seen a growing interest in the disease burden and how to reduce it, many strategies like those of the Millennium Development Goals remain based on global indicators representing average national numbers, often hiding inadmissible inequalities and disparities.

The nine chapters of this book have a common denominator, which is social determinant of health, equity and human development. The first chapter deals with measurements and indicators. It gives some definitions and concepts illustrated with concrete examples. The emphasis is on the necessity of equity analysis going beyond average numbers. The second chapter illustrates the link between social determinants, health equity and development through the health risks lenses. The third chapter is a review of selected recent references on equity and social determinants. The fourth chapter is devoted to the relation between equity and the disease burden. The fifth and sixth chapters consider respectively the case of obesity-diabetes and the Dengue disease. Chapter seven analyses inequalities and disparities in North Africa. Chapter eight is a commentary on fifty years of development in Morocco, stressing the necessity of equity analysis. Finally, chapter nine gives an overview of conventions and declarations adopted on children's rights, compared with the real situation of children in the world and illustrated by a case study of Gaza's children.

We hope that this humble book will contribute to the efforts endeavouring to establish more justice in access to health by understanding and acting on the relation between social determinants, health equity and human development.

Boutayeb Abdesslam
University Mohamed Ier
Morocco

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Boutayeb Abdesslam
University Mohamed Ier
Morocco




Contributor(s):
H. Aguenaou
Unité Mixte de Recherche en Nutrition et Alimentation
University Ibn Tofail
Kenitra-CNESTEN-Rabat
Morocco


Y. Bensouda
Institut National d’Oncologie Service Oncologie Médicale
Rabat
Morocco


A. Boutayeb
Department of Mathematics Faculty of Sciences
Boulevard Mohamed VI
Oujda
Morocco


S. Boutayeb
Institut National d’Oncologie Service Oncologie Médicale
Rabat
Morocco


M. Derouich
Department of Mathematics Faculty of Sciences
Boulevard Mohamed VI
Oujda
Morocco


S. Mehdad
Unité Mixte de Recherche en Nutrition et Alimentation
University Ibn Tofail, Kenitra-CNESTEN-Rabat
Rabat
Morocco


N. Mokhtar
Unité Mixte de Recherche en Nutrition et Alimentation
University Ibn Tofail, Kenitra-CNESTEN-Rabat
Rabat
Morocco




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