Intelligent Transportation Vehicles

Book Series: Mechatronics Series 1


by

Max Suell Dutra

DOI: 10.2174/97816080508191110101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-081-9, 2011
ISBN: 978-1-60805-543-2
ISSN: 1879-4483 (Print)



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Mechatronics Series I: Intelligent Transportation Vehicles brings the latest ad...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i

Hans Ingo Weber

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Preface

- Pp. ii-iii (2)

Luiz Bevilacqua

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iv-vi (3)

Luiz Bevilacqua

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Simultaneous Localization and Mapping for Mobile Robot Teams with Visual Sensors

- Pp. 1-32 (32)

Vivek Anand Sujan and Marco Antonio Meggiolaro

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A General Reactive Motion Planning Scheme for Cyber-Vehicles on Urban Roadways

- Pp. 33-50 (18)

Edgar A. Martinez-Garcia and Rafael Torres Cordova

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Dealing with Traffic Information and User Profiles a Semantic Approach Based On Datex II

- Pp. 51-66 (16)

David Torres Garrigos, Jose Javier Samper Zapater and Juan Jose Martinez Dura

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Inter-Vehicular Communication using IEEE 802.16e Technology

- Pp. 67-87 (21)

Raul Aquino-Santos, Luis A. Villasenor-Gonzalez, Víctor Rangel-Licea, Arthur Edwards-Block, Alejandro Galaviz-Mosqueda and Luis Manuel Ortiz Buenrostro

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Clustering Techniques for Grouping Traffic Events

- Pp. 88-101 (14)

Silvia Del-Campo Romero, Juan Jose Martinez Dura and Jose Javier Samper Zapater

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Distributed Control of Job Shop Systems via Edge Reversal Dynamics for Automated Guided Vehicles

- Pp. 102-114 (13)

Omar Lengerke, Felipe M.G. Franca and Max Suell Dutra

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Intelligent Warehouses: Focus on the Automatic Routing and Path Planning of Robotic Forklifts Able to Work Autonomously

- Pp. 115-145 (31)

Kelen C. T. Vivaldini, Jorge P. M. Galdames, Thales B. Pasqual, Marcelo Becker and Glauco A. P. Caurin

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Task Control of Intelligent Transportation Vehicles in Manufacturing Systems

- Pp. 146-169 (24)

Diolino J. Santos Filho, Francisco Y. Nakamoto, Fabrício Junqueira and Paulo E. Miyagi

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Implementation of Chaotic Behavior on a Fire Fighting Robot

- Pp. 170-182 (13)

Magda J.M. Tavera, Omar Lengerke and Max Suell Dutra

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Index

- Pp. 183-184 (2)

Max Suell Dutra and Omar Lengerke

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Foreword

In our accelerated world it has become usual to collect developments from several distinct research groups on a same subject and compose it in a book. There is a lot more chance to fit this cooperative action in the usual available time schedule of authors and editors. It will not exactly substitute a lecture book intended to support a course, but it will be a unique chance to gather an insight in results that reflect the state of the art of that area.

It is full merit of the editors to offer a uniform prospective, that will juxtapose results from groups of different origins and countries covering the area that gives name to the book and in spite of being heterogeneous in nature will give a homogeneous view on the way problems are handled.

Focusing on intelligent transportation vehicles the editors Dutra from Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and Lengerke from Bucaramanga (Colombia) organized the work in 9 chapters, with authors from Spain, Mexico, U.S. besides Brazil and Colombia. They work in research groups in Universities, Industries and research centers. The chapters reflect the modern tendency of a higher level of automation of processes and handles aspects of traffic information and vehicle communication, including motion planning, localization, clustering techniques, control of automated guided vehicles and task control, besides examples of a fire fighting robot and route planning in intelligent warehouses.

The text is made more accessible as research papers in stile and explanations and it is of value to get a good insight in this area of Mechatronics.

Hans Ingo Weber
Professor at the
Pontifical Catholic University
of Rio de Janeiro
Brazil


Preface

This reference text collects a series of updated articles on the automation and control of at least four classes of transportation vehicles, namely: vehicles immersed in an urban environment, vehicles intended to operate in industrial environments, vehicles designed to explore unknown environments and vehicles suitable to move under hazardous conditions. Several techniques are presented and tested encompassing a large spectrum of topics from the selection and organization of data till the design of operative algorithms using advanced communication technologies. It is to highlight the impact of the new facilities proportionate by the world wide communication systems like the GPS on the urban traffic control. The design of intelligent vehicle for urban road network is already a concrete promise for the near future.

One of the important contributions concerns the development of an algorithm that manages the control of a team of robots used for environmental mapping. The system acquires data from the environment and is designed to optimize information while accounting for uncertainties inherent to sensing devices, robot motion and environment model among others parameters. Despite that the main focus is directed to space technology the same set up may apply to regions of difficult access as in the Amazon region. (Vivek Anand Sujan, Marco Antonio Meggiolaro).

Within this same general theme related to autonomous navigation one of the contributions presents a strategy to plan vehicles motions in the presence of static and dynamic obstacles. As a practical application it is shown the how to plan the motion of vehicles in a urban environment avoiding accidents involving other vehicles or persons. (Martínez-García and Torres-Córdoba).

The use of modern information technologies is also one of the contributions deserving to be highlighted. The man-machine communication is presented within computational software using the semantic approach. Despite the difficulties to implement a common language compatible with human and machine symbolic interpretation which needs a consistent ontology the results show a considerable advance on the robustness of the new systems. To deal with information surrounded by uncertainty factors or depending on agents interpretation the fuzzy logic is used to put the decision making process within a compatible possibilities spectrum. (David Torres Garrigós, José Javier Samper Zapater, Juan José Martínez Durá).

Besides urban vehicle traffic control automated guided vehicles designed to manipulate and transport volumes in a industrial complex have also been considered. The trajectory planning algorithm taking into account the collecting specifications and the best path was developed in house using the very basic information available in the literature. That is no commercial path optimization software was necessary. The solution advanced in the corresponding chapter is important to implement routing strategies for robotic forklifts. The environment is recognized by sensors installed in the vehicle and the system manages to avoid obstacles and collisions. Several vehicles can operate simultaneously increasing productivity. The authors were careful enough to test the algorithm using the Player/Stage Simulator to show its efficacy. (Kelen C. T. Vivaldini, Jorge P. M. Galdames, Thales B. Pasqual, Marcelo Becker, Glauco A. P. Caurin).

Another chapter of this book deals with a complementary theme regarding the automated guided vehicle section. Attention is called over the fact that in several practical circumstances as in production chains not only the robotic vehicles are important but all the itens that compose the manufacturing system. It is therefore important to model the system as whole introducing all the production units and to design an intelligent transportation vehicle system. Critical in the process is the definition of rules to avoid deadlock occurrence. A combination of Resource Allocation Graphs and graphs derived from Petri nets is used for deadlock avoidance and trajectory control. (Diolino J. Santos Filho, Francisco Y. Nakamoto, Fabrício Junqueira and Paulo E. Miyagi).

New high speed communication technologies are presented supported by IEEE 802.16e. The application proposed deals with inter-vehicular communication. Two protocols are compared for routing control in a high mobility environment. The Optimized Link State Routing has shown to present a superior performance as compared with the Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector protocol. It is also noted the growing importance of the Broadband Wireless Access networks and the use of global positioning network for an effective traffic control system. (Raúl Aquino-Santos, Luis A. Villaseñor-González, Víctor Rangel-Licea, Arthur Edwards-Block, Alejandro Galaviz-Mosqueda, Luis Manuel Ortiz Buenrostro).

As information is increasing at very high rates and consequently the data quantity is becoming almost unmanageable using the classic tools, other approaches are needed to make the overwhelming number of data useful. Data mining and clustering techniques have shown to be an appropriate instrument. Clustering technique is discussed in the context of traffic control. Using a type of semantic approach the grouping of different traffic events is encapsulated in interurban scenarios. This chapter provides interesting suggestions for future work that will certainly optimize traffic control algorithms.

(Silvia Del-Campo Romero, Juan José Martínez Durá, José Javier Samper Zapater).

Another approach for planning trajectories is presented aiming the application to traffic control in automated container terminal and automated large scale freight transport. A new algorithm based on a distributed job scheme modeled by an undirected graph representation. The new technique uses the Scheduling by Edge Reversal graph dynamics combined with the graph representation. One of the advantages of the new algorithm lay on the decentralization of the job control allowing for the distributed control to deal with any modification of the due time. (Omar Lengerke, Felipe M.G. França, Max Suell Dutra).

Finally challenging control strategies for vehicles operating in dangerous situations that otherwise would threaten human life are presented. In some circumstances the main purpose of an automated vehicle requires a free path strategy rather than a planned trajectory. This is the case for instance of fire fight robots. Identification of obstacles and rescue targets in an aggressive environment without any well defined data set is better obtained by random trajectories. Designing the control system with chaotic characteristics may serve this purpose. This new technique testing chaotic controllers is explored in the last chapter. The results are compared to find which one covers more efficiently the area to be surveyed. (Magda J.M. Tavera, Omar Lengerke, Max Suell Dutra).

Another very important characteristic of this book is to disclose a potentially very rich research network concerning automated vehicles and robots with basis on different countries. I believe that this is not a minor fact to be noted but a proof that science and technology is closing the gap among different countries. The editors were certainly very careful to gather such a high level group of contributors and to propose a topic that is growing in theoretical and practical importance.

I cannot finish this foreword without saying about my contentment to be writing this short foreword for a book whose one of the editors, Prof. Dutra, was a student in my class dealing with the introduction to robot dynamics some years ago. I am proud to see him as a recognized researcher contributing effectively to the development of science and technology and the education of the new generation.

Luiz Bevilacqua

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Max Suell Dutra
Mechatronics Systems & Robotics Research Group
Brazil




Co-Editor(s):
Omar Lengerke
Mechatronics & Control Research Group
Colombia




Contributor(s):
Raúl Aquino-Santos
University of Colima
Av. Universidad 333, C.P. 28045, Colima
Colima
México


Marcelo Becker
Mechatronics Lab. – Mobile Robotics Group
EESC – USP, Av. do Trabalhador são-carlense, 400,
São Carlos
SP, 13566-590
Brazil


Glauco A. P. Caurin
Mechatronics Lab. – Mobile Robotics Group
EESC – USP, Av. do Trabalhador são-carlense, 400,
São Carlos
SP, 13566-590
Brazil


Silvia Del-Campo Romero
Researcher, LISITT/UVEG
Valencia
Spain


Max Suell Dutra
Mechatronics Systems & Robotics Research Group – COPPE/UFRJ
Postal Box 68.503 – CEP 21.945-970
Rio de Janeiro
RJ
Brazil


Arthur Edwards-Block
University of Colima
Av. Universidad 333, C.P. 28045
Colima
México


Diolino J. Santos Filho
Department of Mechatronics Engineering and Mechanics Systems
University of São Paulo
São Paulo
Brazil


Felipe Maia Galvão França
System Engineering and Computer Science Program
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro – COPPE/UFRJ
Brazil


Alejandro Galaviz-Mosqueda
CICESE, Research Centre
Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada #3918, Ensenada, B. C.
México


Jorge P. M. Galdames
Mechatronics Lab. – Mobile Robotics Group
EESC – USP, Av. do Trabalhador são-carlense, 400
São Carlos
SP, 13566-590
Brazil


Omar Lengerke
Mechatronics Systems & Robotics Research Group – COPPE/UFRJ
Postal Box 68.503 – CEP 21.945-970 – Rio de Janeiro, RJ
Brazil
/
Autonomous University of Bucaramanga – UNAB
Colombia


Juan José Martínez Durá
Director, LISITT/UVEG
Valencia
Spain


Edgar A. Martínez-García
Department of Industrial Engineering and Manufacture Robotics Laboratory
Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Institute of Engineering and Technology
Chihuahua
México


Marco Antonio Meggiolaro
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
RJ, 22451-900
Brazil


Paulo E. Miyag
Department of Mechatronics Engineering and Mechanics Systems
University of São Paulo
Brazil


Francisco Y. Nakamoto
Department of Mechatronics Engineering and Mechanics Systems
University of São Paulo
Brazil


Luis Manuel Ortiz Buenrostro
National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM)
Mexico, D.F.


Thales B. Pasqual
Mechatronics Lab. – Mobile Robotics Group
EESC – USP, Av. do Trabalhador são-carlense, 400
São Carlos
SP, 13566-590
Brazil


Víctor Rangel-Licea
National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM)



D.F. Mexico
Samper Zapater, José Javier, Researcher, LISITT/UVEG
Valencia
Spain


Vivek Anand Sujan
Advanced Control Division, Cummins Engine Company
Columbus
IN, 47201
USA


Magda J.M. Tavera
Mechatronics Systems & Robotics Research Group – COPPE/UFRJ
Postal Box 68.503 – CEP 21.945-970
Rio de Janeiro
RJ
Brazil


Rafael Torres Córdova
Department of Industrial Engineering and Manufacture Robotics Laboratory
Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Institute of Engineering and Technology
Chihuahua
México


David Torres Garrigós
Researcher, LISITT/UVEG
Valencia
Spain


Luis A. Villaseñor-González
CICESE, Research Centre, Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada #3918, Ensenada, B. C.,
Chihuahua
México


Kelen C. T. Vivaldini
Mechatronics Lab. – Mobile Robotics Group
ESC – USP, Av. do Trabalhador são-carlense, 400
São Carlos
SP, 13566-590
Brazil


Fabrício Junqueira
Department of Mechatronics Engineering and Mechanics Systems
University of São Paulo
Brazil




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