Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors: Recent Advancements, Industrial Applications and Market Exploitation


by

Andrea Cusano, Antonello Cutolo

DOI: 10.2174/97816080508401110101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-084-0, 2011
ISBN: 978-1-60805-343-8

  
  


Indexed in: Scopus

The book is an exciting source of information for individuals interested in learning about and marketing sensors. The book focuses on ...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Foreword , Pp. i

Brian Culshaw
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Preface , Pp. ii-iii (2)

Andrea Cusano, Antonello Cutolo and Jacques Albert
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Contributors , Pp. iv-vi (3)

Bentham Science Publishers
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Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors: A Look Back , Pp. 1-8 (8)

Jacques Albert
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Fiber Bragg Gratings: Advances in Fabrication Process and Tools , Pp. 9-34 (26)

Kate Sugden and Vladimir Mezentsev
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Fiber Bragg Gratings: Analysis and Synthesis Techniques , Pp. 35-52 (18)

Johannes Skaar
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Photonic Bandgap Engineering in FBGs by Post Processing Fabrication Technique , Pp. 53-77 (25)

Andrea Cusano, Domenico Paladino, Antonello Cutolo, Agostino Iadicicco and Stefania Campopiano
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Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation Systems , Pp. 78-98 (21)

Jose Luis Santos, Luis Alberto Ferreira and Francisco Manuel Araujo
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Multiplexing Techniques for FBG Sensors , Pp. 99-115 (17)

Manuel Lopez-Amo and Jose Miguel Lopez-Higuera
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Polarization Properties of Fiber Bragg Gratings and Their Application for Transverse Force Sensing Purposes , Pp. 116-142 (27)

Christophe Caucheteur, Sebastien Bette, Marc Wuilpart and Patrice Megret
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Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors in Civil Engineering Applications , Pp. 143-170 (28)

Jinping Ou, Zhi Zhou and Genda Chen
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Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors in Aeronautics and Astronautics , Pp. 171-184 (14)

Nobuo Takeda and Yoji Okabe
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Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors in Energy Applications , Pp. 185-196 (12)

Christopher Barry Staveley
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Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Railway Systems , Pp. 197-217 (21)

Hwa-yaw Tam, Shun-yee Liu, Siu-lau Ho and Tin-kin Ho
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Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors in Nuclear Environments , Pp. 218-237 (20)

Francis Berghmans and Andrei Gusarov
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Fiber Bragg Grating Evanescent Wave Sensors for Chemical and Biological Applications , Pp. 238-269 (32)

Andrea Cusano, Domenico Paladino, Antonello Cutolo, Agostino Iadicicco and Stefania Campopiano
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Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors in Microstructured Optical Fibers , Pp. 270-291 (22)

Tomasz Nasilowski
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Polymer Fiber Bragg Gratings , Pp. 292-312 (21)

David John Webb and Kyriacos Kalli
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Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors: Market Overview and New Perspectives , Pp. 313-320 (8)

Jeff Wayne Miller and Alexis Mendez
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Index , Pp. 321-322 (2)

Bentham Science Publishers
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Foreword

Optical fiber based sensor systems have fascinated the researcher and tantalized the application engineer for over forty years. The fascination lies within the countless ways through which the technically inclined optical scientist can cause light guided within an optical fiber to interact with the world outside and the myriad principles through which these modulation phenomena could be detected. The applications engineer finds the benefits which this approach offers to be many and intriguing. These include predominantly that the area or point which is to be measured needs no electrical contact and yet remains in intimate proximity to the parameter of interest. Add this to ideas like highly multiplexed all electrically passive networks, distributed sensing systems and interrogation ranges of 10 or more kilometers and a whole new spectrum of applications becomes possible.

Of the multiple techniques which have been explored a few have emerged into reality. The fiber optic gyroscope now navigates spacecraft and the hydrophone array helps in mapping the seabed. Other techniques are exciting considerable interest and among these one of the principal contenders for extensive exploration is undoubtedly the Fiber Bragg grating – the subject of this book.

The Bragg grating is intrinsically a simple device. A periodic structure is written into the core of an optical fiber and this periodic structure will reflect specific optical wave length dependent on the periodicity. Vary the periodicity, vary the wavelength. Since this period depends upon environmental temperature and externally applied strains and pressures we have the basis for a simple sensor which is easily and unambiguously interrogated. Furthermore long strings of these sensors each operating at a different wave length can be written into a single fiber giving an array technology linked through just a single fiber giving an array technology which can extend over kilometers.

The basic concepts for the fiber grating go back more than twenty years from early exploratory work undertaken by Ken Hill and his colleagues in Canada. Since then the grating has attracted significant attention from scientists and application engineers alike and has demonstrated its applicability in areas ranging from monitoring large and complex highway bridges to measuring stresses in teeth.

This book explores every nuance of this important sensing concept. The contributors are, without exception, internationally recognized experts in their field and present the diversity of techniques, applications and perceptions through which the potential offered by the Bragg grating can be appreciated. This ranges from basic fabrication processes through the design of the details of the grating structure itself into multiplexing techniques and technologies, the interrogating electro-optic system and the numerous interfaces into application. Market prospects and technology roadmaps also feature to complete the overall picture.

The book promises to be an invaluable addition to the sensing engineer’s library and will provide essential background to stimulate the future prospects for this important and intriguing technology.

Brian Culshaw University of Strathclyde
Glasgow, Scotland
United Kingdom


Preface

The field of fiber optics has undergone tremendous growth over the past 40 years. Initially conceived as a medium to carry light and images for medical endoscopic applications, optical fibers were later proposed in the mid 1960’s as an information-carrying medium for telecommunication applications. The outstanding success of this concept is embodied in millions of miles of telecommunications fiber that have spanned the earth, the seas, and utterly transformed our capacity to communicate and the means by which we do it. The award of the 2009 Nobel Prize in physics to C. K. Kao, who first proposed the use of optical fibers for data communication, is the crowning jewel on this fantastic story. Among the reasons why optical fibers are such an attractive communication medium are their low loss, high bandwidth, electromagnetic interference immunity, small size, light weight, safety, relatively low cost, low maintenance, etc.

As optical fibers consolidated their dominant position in the telecommunications industry, the technology and commercial markets both matured, especially from the late 1980s onward. In parallel over the same period, several groups around the world have been carrying out research to exploit some of the key benefits of optical fibers for another very important application: sensing. Initially, fiber sensors were laboratory curiosities and simple proof-of-concept demonstrations. However, more and more, optical fiber technologies are making an impact and have achieved commercial respectability and viability in industrial sensing, bio-medical laser delivery systems, aerospace and military gyroscopes, as well as automotive lighting & control – to name just a few – and span applications as diverse as oil-well downhole pressure/temperature sensors and intra-aortic catheters. This transition has taken the better part of the last 20 years and reached the point where fiber sensors enjoy widespread use for structural sensing and monitoring applications in civil engineering, aerospace, marine, oil & gas, composites, smart structures, bio-medical devices, electric power industry and many others. Of course all these advances have resulted from the development of a complete understanding of the physical and chemical transducing mechanisms and of the appropriate sensor interrogation systems and technologies. For instance, there is a variety of commercial discrete sensors based on Fabry-Perot cavities and Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs), as well as distributed sensors based on Raman and Brillouin scattering methods, all readily available along with relevant interrogation instruments. Amongst all of these, FBG based sensors – more than any other particular sensor type – have become widely known, researched, and popular within and outside of the photonics community, leading to a significant increase in their utilization and commercial impact. Given the capability of FBGs to measure a multitude of parameters such as strain, temperature, pressure, chemical and biological agents and many others, coupled with their design flexibility for single point or multi-point sensing arrays and their relative low cost, FBGs are ideal for a multitude of sensing applications in many fields and industries.

Since 2000, more than twenty companies have been active in the FBGs sensor market. In 2000, Micron Optics was able to launch in the market the first line of advanced FBG interrogators, while in 2003 LxSix (now LxDATA) and Sabeus launched the first reel-to-reel production of high reliability FBGs arrays. Finally, in May of 2007 HBM – the world’s largest supplier of strain sensing systems – began offering optical strain gages and interrogators based on FBG technology. This marked the first time that a conventional foil strain gage manufacturer adopted and embraced FBGs as an essential part of their product portfolio. A broad and intense commercial pull is expected to follow from this breakthrough.

On the research side, many groups around the world are hard at work on new fabrication methods, FBG reliability, new device designs, and new data processing techniques. For instance, FBGs can now be fabricated in many types of glasses using ultrafast IR writing and new post processing techniques have been developed to customize device spectra for enhanced sensitivity in specific applications. New industrial applications have opened up in many strategic sectors, especially in the case of chemical or biological sensing. The prospects of using polymer optical fibers (POF) in sensing applications is expected to lead to the development of POF FBGs for inexpensive, simple and low-cost disposable platforms (in the automotive industry for instance). Similarly, microstructured optical fibers are expected to have a major impact in the development of new chemical and biological systems based on optofluidics as well as active and passive microfluidics.

All of these advances have created a need for a comprehensive overview of the FBG Sensor Technology. The book that we have put together covers every aspect of this technology, starting all the way back from the fortuitous discovery of Hill in 1978. The remainder of the book details the enormous efforts carried out by both the scientific and industrial communities over the last two decades to bring the field to its current level of success and its promise of further advances. The different chapters will illustrate and describe:

  • new fabrication methods and advancements in photosensitivity;
  • new post processing techniques for spectral tailoring;
  • new applications in strategic industrial sectors starting from civil, aeronautic energy up to nuclear and extreme environments;
  • exciting new developments in the field of chemical and biological sensing;
  • new perspectives involving plastic and micro-structured fibers;
  • a clear identification of the market situation and a forecast for the next decade.

In summary, our goal was to provide a complete, very exciting source of information on FBG sensors for the huge community of people now involved in the field, including both the scientific and the industrial sectors. Of special interest is the fact that the book also contains a very wide range of topics and innovative concepts that have not yet been presented as comprehensive reviews elsewhere. Finally, it is important to remark that each of the chapters has been written by recognized experts in their fields, either from academia or the private sector according to the topic of the chapter. It has been a pleasure for the editors to work with all these authors as they have worked very hard to provide us with authoritative, clear and elaborate reviews of their specialties. We hope that the readers of the book will share our pleasure in reading these reviews, and maybe learn a thing or two along the way to further their research or business. That, surely, would be our most satisfying reward.

Andrea Cusano & Antonello Cutolo
University of Sannio, Italy
Jacques Albert
University of Carleton, Canada

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Andrea Cusano
University of Sannio
Italy


Antonello Cutolo
University of Sannio
Italy




Contributor(s):
Jacques Albert
Department of Electronics
Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive
Ottawa
ON, K1S 5B6
Canada


Francisco M. Araújo
INESC Porto
Rua do Campo Alegre 687
Rua Vasconcelos Costa 277
Porto, 4169-007
Portugal


Francis Berghmans
Department of Applied Physics and Photonics
Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2
Boeretang 200
Brussels, 1050
Belgium


Sébastien Bette
Electromagnetism and Telecommunications Department
Faculté Polytechnique, Université de Mons
Boulevard Dolez 31
Mons, 7000
Belgium


Stefania Campopiano
Department of Technology
University of Naples “Parthenope”, Centro Direzionale di Napoli Isola C4
Napoli, 80143
Italy


Christophe Caucheteur
Electromagnetism and Telecommunications Department
Faculté Polytechnique, Université de Mons, Boulevard Dolez 31
Mons, 7000
Belgium


Genda Chen
Center for Infrastructure Engineering Studies
Missouri University of Science and Technology
Rolla
MO, 65409-0710
USA


Andrea Cusano
Optoelectronic Division – Engineering Department
University of Sannio, Corso Garibaldi 107
Benevento, 82100
Italy


Antonello Cutolo
Optoelectronic Division – Engineering Department
University of Sannio, Corso Garibaldi 107
Benevento, 82100
Italy


Luís A. Ferreira
INESC Porto
Rua do Campo Alegre 687
Rua Vasconcelos Costa 277
Porto, 4169-007
Portugal


Andrei Gusarov
SCK·CEN Belgian Nuclear Research Center
Boeretang 200
Mol, 2400
Belgium


Siu-lau Ho
Photonics Research Centre, Department of Electrical Engineering
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Hung Hom, Kowloon
Hong Kong SAR
China


Tin-kin Ho
Photonics Research Centre, Department of Electrical Engineering
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Hung Hom, Kowloon
Hong Kong SAR
China


Agostino Iadicicco
Department of Technology, University of Naples “Parthenope”
Centro Direzionale di Napoli Isola C4
Napoli, 80143
Italy


Kyriacos Kalli
Nanophotonics Research Laboratory
Cyprus University of Technology
Cyprus


Shun-yee Liu
Photonics Research Centre, Department of Electrical Engineering
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Hung Hom, Kowloon
Hong Kong SAR
China


Manuel López-Amo
Grupo de Comunicaciones Ópticas
Universidad Pública de Navarra, Campus de Arrosdía
Pamplona, E-31006
Spain


Jóse M. López-Higuera
Grupo de Ingeniería Fotónica
Universidad de Cantabria
ETSII y Telecomunicación, Avda. de los Castros s/n
Santander, E-39005
Spain


Patrice Mégret
Electromagnetism and Telecommunications Department
Faculté Polytechnique, Université de Mons
Boulevard Dolez 31
Mons, 7000
Belgium


Alexis Méndez
MCH Engineering LLC
1728 Clinton Avenue
Alameda
CA, 94501
USA


Vladimir Mezentsev
Photonics Research Group, Aston University
Aston Triangle
Birmingham, B4 7ET
UK


Jeff W. Miller
Micron Optics Inc.
1852 Century Place
Atlanta
GA, 30345
USA


Tomasz Nasilowski
Department of Applied Physics and Photonics
Faculty of Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Pleinlaan 2, building F
Brussels, B-1050
Belgium


Yoji Okabe
Department of Mechanical and Biofunctional Systems
Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo
4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku
Tokyo, 153-8505
Japan


Jinping Ou
School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin
Heilongjiang, 150090
P.R. China


Domenico Paladino
Optoelectronic Division – Engineering Department
University of Sannio
Corso Garibaldi 107
Benevento, 82100
Italy


José L. Santos
INESC Porto
Rua do Campo Alegre 687
Rua do Campo Alegre 687
Porto, 4169-007
Portugal


Johannes Skaar
Department of Electronics and Telecommunications
Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; University Graduate Center
Kjeller
Norway


Christopher B. Staveley
Smart Fibres, Limited
12 The Courtyard, Eastern Road
Bracknell, RG12 2XB
UK


Kate Sugden
Photonics Research Group
Aston University, Aston Triangle
Birmingham, B4 7ET
UK


Hwa-yaw Tam
Photonics Research Centre, Department of Electrical Engineering
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Hung Hom, Kowloon
Hong Kong SAR
China


Nobuo Takeda
Department of Advanced Energy
Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo
Mail Box 302, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi
Chiba, 277-8561
Japan


David J. Webb
Photonics Research Group
Aston University
UK


Marc Wuilpart
Electromagnetism and Telecommunications Department
Faculté Polytechnique, Université de Mons
Boulevard Dolez 31
Mons, 7000
Belgium


Zhi Zhou
School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin
Heilongjiang
MO, 150090
P.R. China




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