Molecular Aspects of Neurodegeneration and Neuroprotection


by

Akhlaq Farooqui , Tahira Farooqui

DOI: 10.2174/97816080509251110101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-092-5, 2011
ISBN: 978-1-60805-376-6

  
  


Indexed in: Scopus, Chemical Abstracts

Neurodegenerative diseases are a complex heterogeneous group of diseases associated with site-specific premature and slow death of cer...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Foreword , Pp. i

Lane J. Wallace
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Preface , Pp. ii

Akhlaq A. Farooqui and Tahira Farooqui
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Contributors , Pp. iii-v (3)

Akhlaq A. Farooqui and Tahira Farooqui
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Acknowledgements , Pp. vi

Akhlaq A. Farooqui and Tahira Farooqui
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Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid-derived Lipid Mediators in Brain , Pp. 1-9 (9)

Akhlaq A. Farooqui
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Neurochemical Aspects of Inflammation in Brain , Pp. 10-22 (13)

Akhlaq A. Farooqui
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Suitable Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Neurodegenerative Diseases , Pp. 23-38 (16)

Fabio Coppedea and Lucia Miglioreb
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Kainic Acid-Mediated Neural Cell Death in Brain: Interplay Among Glycerophospholipid-, Sphingolipid-, and Cholesterol-Derived Lipid Mediators , Pp. 39-49 (11)

Wei-Yi Ong and Akhlaq A. Farooqui
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Association of Mitochondrial Signaling in Alzheimer’s Disease and Hypoxia , Pp. 50-61 (12)

Cristina Carvalho, Sonia C. Correia, Renato X. Santos, Susana Cardoso, Paula I. Moreira, Xiongwei Zhu, Mark A. Smith and George Perry
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Dopamine-Mediated Oxidative Stress Associated with Neurodegeneration in Parkinson Disease , Pp. 62-71 (10)

Tahira Farooqui
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Contribution of Complement in Neurodegenerative and Neuroinflammatory Diseases , Pp. 72-89 (18)

Annapurna Nayak, Uday Kishore and DM Bonifati
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The Roles of Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF) and its Related Signaling and Metabolism in Neurological Diseases , Pp. 90-101 (12)

Yutaka Hirashima
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Novel Mechanism for Oxidative Stress in Neurodevelopmental Pathophysiology and Course of Schizophrenia , Pp. 102-120 (19)

Anvita Kale, Sadhana R. Joshi and Sahebarao P. Mahadik
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Neuroprotective Actions of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Particular Reference to Alzheimer’s Disease , Pp. 121-131 (11)

Undurti N Das
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Future Perspective: Directions for Future Development on Various Aspects of Neurodegeneration and Neuroprotection in Neurological Disorders , Pp. 132-139 (8)

Akhlaq A. Farooqui and Tahira Farooqui
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Index , Pp. 140-146 (7)

Akhlaq A. Farooqui and Tahira Farooqui
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Foreword

The brain is an extraordinarily complex organ with remarkable capabilities. It undergoes a programmed plan of development over more than two decades and usually continues ability to undergo plasticity associated with learning throughout a lifetime. However, some congenital diseases, injuries to the head, and age-associated diseases produce profoundly negative impact on cognitive function. Understanding these neurodegenerative diseases and finding preventions/cures for them is an important goal of current research. It is becoming increasingly evident that neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, perturbed Ca2+ homeostasis, and apoptosis are closely associated with the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. This E-book presents up-to-date, cutting edge, and comprehensive information on the molecular aspects of neurodegeneration and neuroprotection in neurological disorders. Neurotraumatic diseases are characterized by acute neuroinflammation and oxidative stress that develop rapidly due to rapid depletion of ATP; sudden loss of ion homeostasis; accumulation of eicosanoids and platelet activating factor; and the release of proinflammatory cytokines. These processes result in rapid cell death that may occur in hours to days. In contrast, in neurodegenerative diseases oxygen and nutrients continue to be available to the nerve cells. ATP levels and ionic homeostasis are maintained at a level compatible with cell viability but not necessarily at optimum level. The interplay between oxidative stress and neuroinflammation occurs at a slow rate, leading to a neurodegenerative process that takes several years to develop. Thus, in neurodegenerative diseases chronic inflammation and oxidative stress linger for years, causing continued small insult to the brain tissue that accumulates over many years and ultimately reaches the threshold of detection many years after the onset of the neurodegenerative diseases.

Editors are known for their work on neurodegeneration and neuroprotection. They have taken great care in selecting topics on which progress has been made recently. They have done a commendable job in putting together this book and in writing the perspective. Chapters within this E-book are characterized by uniformity of style and simple and clear presentations. Topics addressed include the involvement of arachidonic acid derived lipid mediators (eicosanoids) and docosahexaenoic acid-derived lipid mediators (docosanoids) in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection, contribution of platelet activating factor, complement and hypoxic injury in neurodegeneration, biomarkers for oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases, and involvement of oxidative stress in Parkinson disease and schizophrenia. The subject matter develops logically and progresses smoothly from one topic to another. The book contains extensive bibliography. Useful references will help readers in pursuing those areas of interest that are beyond the scope of this book. To aid comprehension, a large number of figures and line diagrams of signal transduction pathways is presented.

This E-book can be used as supplemental text for a range of neuroscience courses. Clinicians will find this E-book useful for understanding molecular aspects of lipid mediators involved in neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in neurological disorders. It is anticipated that senior neuroscientists may find inspiration from this E-book to overcome problems encountered in their research on lipid mediators associated with neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Students may gain insight into the difficulties experienced in their research on lipid mediators in brain.

Lane J. Wallace, Ph.D.
Chair and Professor
Division of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy
The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 USA


Preface

American population is aging. The Census Bureau predicts that the nation will have more than 1 million centenarians in 2050, up from 71,000 today. The number of Americans afflicted with stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, and neuropsychiatric disorders is also increasing. These diseases are caused by acute or progressive loss of neurons resulting in brain dysfunction. Known risk factors for stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, and neuropsychiatric disorders include increasing age, genetic polymorphisms, endocrine conditions, oxidative stress, inflammation, excitotoxicity, hypertension, diabetes, infection, tumors, immune and metabolic conditions, and chemical exposure. According to the NINDS, approximately 50 million Americans are affected by stroke, neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders each year. The number of people affected with above neurological disorders will double every 20 years, and will cost the U.S. economy billions of dollars each year in direct health care costs and lost opportunities. It is estimated that $100 billion per year is spent on Alzheimer disease alone. In addition to the financial costs, there is an immense emotional burden on patients, their relatives, and caregivers. It is also predicted as the number of senior citizens grows, costs to treat neurological disorders to the society will increase significantly.

Significant progress has been made on molecular aspects of neurodegeneration and neuroprotection in acute neural trauma and neurodegenerative diseases. This information is scattered throughout the literature in the form of original papers, reviews, and some edited books. The purpose of this E-book is to present readers with cutting edge and comprehensive information on molecular aspects of neurodegeneration and neuroprotection in a manner that is useful not only to students and teachers but also to researchers and physicians. This E-book has 11 chapters by leading researchers in the field of neurodegeneration and neuroprotection. Chapter 1, 2, and 3 describe neurochemical aspects of neuroinflammation and biomarkers for oxidative stress. Chapter 4 deals that molecular mechanism of kainic acid neurotoxicity in the brain. Chapter 5, 6, and 7 describe the involvement of mitochondrial signaling in Alzheimer disease and hypoxic injury, molecular aspects of dopamine-mediated neurodegeneration, and role of complement in neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Chapter 8 describes the role of platelet activating factor in neurological disorders. Chapter 9 provides information on pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Chapter 10 describes involvement of fatty acids and their metabolites in neuroprotection in brain, and finally chapter 11 deals with the perspective and directions for future development on various aspects of neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.

The writing style and demonstrated ability of various authors to present complicated information on neurodegeneration and neuroprotection makes this book particularly accessible to neuroscience graduate students, teachers, and fellow researchers. This E-book can be used as supplement text for a range of neuroscience courses. Clinicians and pharmacologists will find this book useful for understanding molecular basis of neurodegeneration in neurodegenerative diseases. Editors of this E-book have tried to ensure uniformity in the mode of presentation as well as a logical progression from one topic to another and have made sure that authors provide extensive referencing. Editors hope that their attempts to integrate and consolidate knowledge of molecular aspects of neurodegeneration and neuroprotection in neurological disorders will provide the basis for more dramatic advances and developments in signal transduction processes associated with molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.

Akhlaq A. Farooqui
Tahira Farooqui


List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Akhlaq Farooqui
The Ohio State University
USA


Tahira Farooqui
The Ohio State University
USA




Contributor(s):
D. M. Bonifati
Department of Neurological disorders
Santa Chiara Hospital
Largo Medaglie d’Oro 1
Trento
Italy


T. Farooqui
Department Entomology/Center for Molecular Neurobiology
The Ohio State University, Columbus
Ohio
USA


S. Cardoso
Department of Zoology
Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra
Coimbra
Portugal


Y. Hirashima
Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Teikyo University, Sagamiko, Sagamihara
Kanagawa
Japan


S.C. Correia
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences and Technology
University of Coimbra
Coimbra
Portugal


S.R. Joshi
Interactive Research School for Health Affairs
Bharati Vidyapeeth
Pune
India


C. Carvalho
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences and Technology
University of Coimbra
Coimbra
Portugal


A. Kale
Interactive Research School for Health Affairs
Bharati Vidyapeeth
Pune
India


F. Coppedè
Department of Neuroscience
University of Pisa, Via Roma
Pisa
Italy


U. Kishore
Laboratory of Human Immunology and Infection Biology
Biosciences Division Brunel University
Uxbridge West London UB8 3PH
UK


U.N. Das
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University
Kakinada, India and UND Life Sci, Shaker Heights
Ohio
USA


S.P. Mahadik
Department of Psychiatry and Health Behavior
Medical College of Georgia
Augusta
GA
USA


A.A. Farooqui
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
The Ohio State University, Columbus
Ohio
USA


L. Migliore
Department of Human and Environmental Sciences
University of Pisa
Via S. Giuseppe 22
Pisa
Italy


P.I. Moreira
Institute of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine
University of Coimbra
Coimbra
Portugal


R.X. Santos
Department of Zoology,
Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra
Coimbra
Portugal


A. Nayak
Laboratory of Human Immunology and Infection Biology
Biosciences Division, Brunel University
Uxbridge West London UB8 3PH
UK


M.A. Smith
Department of Pathology
Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland
Ohio
USA


W.Y. Ong
Department of Anatomy
National University of Singapore
Singapore


L.J. Wallace
Division of Pharmacology
College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus
Ohio
USA


G Perry
UTSA Institute for Neuroscience and Department of Biology
College of Sciences, University of Texas,
San Antonio
Texas
USA


X. Zhu
Department of Pathology
Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland
Ohio
USA




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