Ecological Impacts of Toxic Chemicals


by

Francisco S.-Bayo, Paul J. van den Brink, Reinier M. Mann

DOI: 10.2174/97816080512121110101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-121-2, 2011
ISBN: 978-1-60805-663-7

  
  




Ecological Impacts of Toxic Chemicals presents a comprehensive, yet readable account of the known disturbances caused...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Foreword , Pp. i-ii (2)

G. Allen Burton

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Preface , Pp. iii

Francisco Sanchez-Bayo, Paul J. van den Brink and Reinier M. Mann

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List of Contributors , Pp. iv-v (2)

Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, Paul J. van den Brink and Reinier M. Mann

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Sources and Toxicity of Pollutants , Pp. 3-12 (10)

Francisco Sanchez-Bayo

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Sources and Toxicity of PollutantsFate and Transport of Contaminants , Pp. 13-42 (30)

Dik van de Meent, Anne Hollander, Willie Peijnenburg and Ton Breure

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Metals and Metalloids in Terrestrial Systems: Bioaccumulation,Biomagnification and Subsequent Adverse Effects , Pp. 43-62 (20)

Reinier M. Mann, Martina G. Vijver and Willie J.G.M. Peijnenburg

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Impacts of Agricultural Pesticides on Terrestrial Ecosystems , Pp. 63-87 (25)

Francisco Sanchez-Bayo

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Ecological Impacts of Major Forest-Use Pesticides , Pp. 88-110 (23)

Dean G. Thompson

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Impacts of Pesticides on Freshwater Ecosystems , Pp. 111-137 (27)

Ralf B. Schafer, Paul J. van den Brink and Matthias Liess

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Ecological Impacts of Organic Chemicals on Freshwater Ecosystems , Pp. 138-164 (27)

Paul K. Sibley and Mark L. Hanson

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Impact of Pollutants on Coastal and Benthic Marine Communities , Pp. 165-186 (22)

Angel Borja, Maria Jesus Belzunce, Joxe Mikel Garmendia, Jose German Rodriguez, Oihana Solaun and Izaskun Zorita

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Chemical Pollution on Coral Reefs: Exposure and Ecological Effects , Pp. 187-211 (25)

Joost W. van Dam, Andrew P. Negri, Sven Uthicke and Jochen F. Mueller

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Impact of Contaminants on Pelagic Ecosystems , Pp. 212-224 (13)

Ketil Hylland and A. Dick Vethaak

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The Role of Aquatic Ecosystems in the Elimination of Pollutants , Pp. 225-237 (13)

Matthew T. Moore, Robert Kroger and Colin R. Jackson

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Concluding Remarks , Pp. 238-241 (4)

Francisco Sanchez-Bayo, Paul J. van den Brink and Reinier M. Mann

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Appendix , Pp. 242-249 (8)

Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, Paul J. van den Brink and Reinier M. Mann

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Index , Pp. 250-281 (32)

Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, Paul J. van den Brink and Reinier M. Mann

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Foreword

“Ecological Impacts of Toxic Chemicals” is a long-overdue, comprehensive coverage of chemical fate and effects in terrestrial and aquatic environments. The editors Sánchez-Bayo, van den Brink and Mann have brought together an excellent group of international experts to systematically cover this complex topic from the source of organic and metal compounds, to their fate and impacts on land and in our freshwater and marine ecosystems. The book is very readable, serving as an excellent introduction to the topic or as a useful supplement to courses and readings in the environmental sciences at any level. Indeed, it is appropriate for the general public, students, or scientists from outside the field of ecotoxicology.

The first two chapters, by Sánchez-Bayo (Chapter 1) and van de Meent, Hollander, Peijnenburg and Breure (Chapter 2) introduce the theme of the book, covering the sources and mode of action of environmental contaminants and the toxicity of various common pollutant categories: mining wastes, sewage, industrial and metropolitan discharges. The transport and fate of metal and organic pollutants in the environment is described from a modeler’s perspective. The processes governing the movement of chemicals between air, land and water are described, along with biological transformations, including degradation and bioaccumulation. The understanding of the fate and ultimate exposure to biota is essential in ecotoxicology and risk assessment and management.

The following three chapters deal with terrestrial ecosystems. In Chapter 3, Mann, Vijver and Peijnenburg explain how naturally-occurring metals and metalloids can become contaminants when they bioaccumulate and result in sublethal to lethal effects on populations and food chains. They cover the key metals of toxicological concern which continue to be a problem world-wide: arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc. Agricultural pesticides have been widely used in developing and developed countries and because they are biocides, have resulted in a range of unintended adverse effects on non-target biota. Sánchez-Bayo discusses fungicides, insecticides and herbicides and how they have impacted virtually every level of the food chain, from the microbial level to birds and mammals. Thompson focuses on the forest industry’s use of pesticides (herbicides and insecticides) and case examples of lab to field studies that have assessed the risk of these widely used compounds in pest management in the forest sector. These studies are then linked to the risk assessment and management process providing for a comprehensive perspective of multiple stakeholder concerns.

The final six chapters address the many issues of chemicals in marine and freshwater environments. Schäfer, van den Brink and Liess have an excellent review of pesticide impacts on freshwater ecosystems, from primary producers, up the food chain, to fish. They explain the many complex interactions that must be considered regarding pesticide mode-of-action, exposure (particularly consideration of peak concentrations), indirect effects, and the potential for recovery of populations and communities. They describe a range of useful techniques and approaches for assessing pesticide risk from the broad to local scales, and the need for incorporating ecological knowledge into the risk assessment process. A growing concern exists for the impacts of other, non-pesticide, organic chemicals in freshwater ecosystems which is dealt with in Chapter 7 by Sibley and Hanson. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and emerging contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and perfluorinated surfactants are becoming common in freshwaters throughout the world. This is due to their resistance to degradation and ability to be transported between water, soil, air and biota. Their bioaccumulation through the food chain presents recognized risks, but these risks are difficult to ascertain from studies at the lower end of the food chain. Chemicals tend to accumulate in sediments, hence biota associated with sediments, the benthos, are particularly susceptible. Borja, Belzunce, Garmendia, Rodríguez, Solaun and Zorita describe this complex issue in Chapter 8, for coastal and marine benthic communities. Their coverage begins at the molecular effect level and progresses up the ladder of biological complexity to populations and communities, and the need for integrative assessments. They document how important it is to understand biological effects by looking at the different levels of biological organization. Dying coral reefs have been documented throughout the world. They are impacted by nutrients, metals, organic chemicals, climate change and ocean acidification. In Chapter 9, van Dam, Negri, Uthicke and Mueller explain the severity of this phenomenon and the tools available for evaluating adverse effects. Of critical importance is their coverage of how adverse effects and risk is tied to exposures, which vary from short-term, to pulse-like spills, to recurring incidents from effluent discharges to river flooding. These later, chronic and repetitive events are likely to decrease the resilience of reef organisms making them more susceptible to climate change and acidification. In contrast to the previous two chapters, Hylland and Vethaak in Chapter 10 focus on contaminant effects on water column organisms, often referred to as pelagic organisms which fuel the world’s ocean ecosystems. The various ways of assessing pelagic effects are reviewed, along with the unique strengths and limitations in the context of making environmental management decisions. Better monitoring of the pelagic zone is critical for long term monitoring programs and effective ecosystem management. Finally, in Chapter 11, Moore, Kröger and Jackson inform the reader of how aquatic ecosystems are so efficient at transferring, transforming and sequestering pollutants, thus reducing their risk to organisms and ecosystems. They focus on the successful use of phyto-remediation of organic and inorganic pollutants.

Together, these chapters provide a broad, timely and comprehensive review of the potential effects of chemical pollutants in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Readers new to this field will not be disappointed and quickly made aware of the critical issues affecting our current and near-future world.

G. Allen Burton
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor


Preface

Ecotoxicology is a multidisciplinary science that examines the effects of toxic chemicals on individual organisms, populations, communities and ecosystems. However, with a 40-year history, ecotoxicology is still in its infancy. Up until recently a lot of work has been done to describe the fate and effect of chemicals in the environment, but most of it has been performed in the laboratory, usually with a narrow suite of test organisms. However, over the last two decades more and more experiments and monitoring have been performed in man-made (so called microcosms and mesocosms) as well as natural aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Also the use of modelling has allowed us to predict the behaviour of chemicals and their consequent effects in the environment. Impacts of pollutants at an ecosystem level, however, are reported mostly in the specialized journal literature as scattered pieces of a larger puzzle. To date, no systematic work bringing all the information on this subject together is available, neither to researchers nor the general public. This book was conceived to fill this gap.

Ecological Impacts of Toxic Chemicals presents a comprehensive, yet readable account of the known disturbances caused by all kinds of toxic chemicals on both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Topics cover the sources of toxicants, their fate and distribution through the planet, their impacts on specific ecosystems, and their remediation by natural systems. Each chapter is written by well-known specialists in those areas, for the general public, students, and even scientists from outside this field. The book intends to raise awareness of the dangers of chemical pollution in a world dominated by industry and globalization of resources. Because the problems are widespread and far reaching, it is hoped that confronting the facts may prompt better management practices at industrial, agricultural and all levels of management, from local to governmental, so as to reduce the negative impacts of chemical contaminants in our Earth.

The editors would like to thank Bentham Science Publishers for providing this opportunity to bring this science to the general public.

Francisco Sánchez-Bayo,
Paul J. van den Brink,
Reinier M. Mann


List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Francisco S.-Bayo
University of Technology Sydney
Australia


Paul J. van den Brink
Alterra and Wageningen University
The Netherlands


Reinier M. Mann
University of Technology Sydney
Australia




Contributor(s):
María Jesús Belzunce
AZTI-Tecnalia, Marine Research Division
Pasaia, 20110
Spain


Ángel Borja
AZTI-Tecnalia, Marine Research Division
Pasaia, 20110
Spain


Ton Breure
RIVM Laboratory for Ecological Risk Assessment
Bilthoven
BA, 3720
The Netherlands


Paul J. van den Brink
Alterra and Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre
P.O. Box 47
Wageningen
AA, 6700
The Netherlands


Joost W. van Dam
Australian Institute of Marine Science
Townsville
Qld, 4810
Australia


Joxe Mikel Garmendia
AZTI-Tecnalia, Marine Research Division
Pasaia, 20110
Spain


Mark L. Hanson
Department of Environment and Geography
University of Manitoba
Canada


Anne Hollander
Radboud University Nijmegen
Nijmegen
The Netherlands


Ketil Hylland
Department of Biology
University of Oslo
Blindern
Oslo, N-0316
Norway


Colin R. Jackson
Department of Biology
University of Mississippi
Mississippi, 38677
USA


Robert Kröger
Department of Wildlife, Fisheries and Aquaculture
Mississippi State University
Mississippi, 39762
USA


Matthias Liess
Department System Ecotoxicology
UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research
Leipzig, 04317
Germany


Reinier M. Mann
Centre for Ecotoxicology, Department of Environmental Sciences
University of Technology Sydney
Present Address: Hydrobiology, NSW 2007, Australia
Brisbane
Australia


Dik van de Meent
RIVM Laboratory for Ecological Risk Assessment
Bilthoven
BA, 3720
The Netherlands


Matthew T. Moore
USDA Agricultural Research Service
National Sedimentation Laboratory, Oxford
Mississippi , 38655
USA


Jochen F. Mueller
The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology
Coopers Plains
Qld, 4108
Australia


Andrew P. Negri
Australian Institute of Marine Science
Townsville
Qld, 4810
Australia


Willie J.G.M. Peijnenburg
Laboratory for Ecological Risk Assessment
National Institute of Public Health and the Environment
Bilthoven
BA, 3720
The Netherlands


José Germán Rodríguez
AZTI-Tecnalia, Marine Research Division
Pasaia, 20110
Spain


Francisco Sánchez-Bayo
Centre for Ecotoxicology
University of Technology Sydney
Climate Change & Water NSW, 480 Weeroona Road
Lidcombe
NSW, 2007
Australia


Ralf B. Schäfer
RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia; Present address: Institute for Environmental Sciences, University Koblenz- Landau
Landau
Germany


Paul K. Sibley
School of Environmental Science, University of Guelph
Ontario, N1G 2W1
Canada


Oihana Solaun
AZTI-Tecnalia, Marine Research Division
Pasaia, 20110
Spain


Dean G. Thompson
Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada
Sault Ste. Marie
Ontario, P6A 2E5
Canada


Sven Uthicke
Australian Institute of Marine Science
Townsville
Qld, 4810
Australia


Martina G. Vijver
Leiden University, Institute of Environmental Sciences
Leiden
RA, 2300
The Netherlands


A. Dick Vethaak
Deltares, Marine and Coastal System
De Boelelaan 1105
Delft
MH, 2600
The Netherlands


Izaskun Zorita
AZTI-Tecnalia, Marine Research Division
Pasaia, 20110
Spain




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