Frontiers in CNS Drug Discovery

Volume 1

by

Atta-ur-Rahman , M. Iqbal Choudhary

DOI: 10.2174/97816080515951100101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-159-5, 2010
ISBN: 978-1-60805-363-6
ISSN: 1879-6613 (Print)

  
  


Indexed in: Scopus, EMBASE

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Table of Contents

Preface

- Pp. i

Atta-ur-Rahman and M. Iqbal Choudhary

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Contributors

- Pp. ii-ix (8)

Bentham Science Publishers

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Antiretroviral Therapy and HIV-1-Associated Dementia

- Pp. 1-20 (20)

Michela Pollicita, Luigi Ronga, Valentina Svicher, Carlo Federico Perno and Stefano Aquaro

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Protective Substances Against Zinc-Induced Neuronal Death after Ischemia: Carnosine as a Target for Drug of Vascular Type of Dem

- Pp. 21-30 (10)

Masahiro Kawahara, Keiko Konoha, Tetsuya Nagata and Yutaka Sadakane

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Therapeutical Potentials of Protein Kinase C Activators as Antidementic and Cognition-Enhancing Agents

- Pp. 31-50 (20)

Miao-Kun Sun and Daniel L. Alkon

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Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 and its Derivatives: Potential Pharmaceutical Application for Ischemic Brain Injury

- Pp. 51-75 (25)

Jian Guan

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Galantamine, a Natural Product for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

- Pp. 76-105 (30)

Luis Marco and Maria do Carmo Carreiras

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Therapeutic Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease Using Metal Complexing Agents

- Pp. 106-122 (17)

Katherine A. Price, Peter J. Crouch and Anthony R. White

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Alzheimer's Disease Drug Discovery: Potential Therapeutic Strategies and Future Treatments

- Pp. 123-146 (24)

Laurent Lecanu and Vassilios Papadopoulos

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Pharmacological Treatment for Parkinson's Disease: A Continuing Evolution

- Pp. 147-155 (9)

Quincy J. Almeida and H. Christopher Hyson

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Vasopressin Antagonists as Anxiolytics and Antidepressants: Recent Developments

- Pp. 156-183 (28)

Karine Fabio, Christophe Guillon, Shi-fang Lu, Ned D. Heindel, Marvin Miller, Craig F. Ferris, Michael J. Brownstein and Carrie Gar

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Recent Developments in Anxiety Disorders

- Pp. 184-205 (22)

David M. Christmas, Geetha Menon and Sean D. Hood

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Drugs and Aggression†

- Pp. 206-223 (18)

Alberto A. Rasia-Filho, Marcia Giovenardi and Rosa M.M. de Almeida

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Antiepileptic Drug and Estradiol Neuroprotection in Epilepsy

- Pp. 224-244 (21)

Libor Velisek and Jana Veliskova

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Glucocorticoids Involvement in the Control of CNS Excitability: An Updated

- Pp. 245-283 (39)

Anna Capasso, Mariella Caputo, Mario Felice Tecce and Alberto Loizzo

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Glycine Transporter Inhibitors as Therapeutic Agents for Schizophrenia

- Pp. 284-303 (20)

Kenji Hashimoto

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Blocking Striatal Adenosine A2A Receptors: A New Strategy for Basal Ganglia Disorders

- Pp. 304-341 (38)

Christa E. Muller and Sergi Ferre

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The Astrocytic GABAA/Benzodiazepine-Like Receptor: Identifying the Joker Receptor for Benzodiazepine-Mimetic Drugs?

- Pp. 342-361 (20)

Leif Hertz and Ye Chen

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Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors as Novel Therapeutic Targets

- Pp. 362-377 (16)

Ada Maria Tata

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Tachykinergic System and Binding Molecules in Disease: Implication for Targeted Therapies

- Pp. 378-389 (12)

Pranela Rameshwar

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The Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor as a Therapeutic Target in CNS Disorders

- Pp. 390-399 (10)

Rafael Roesler, Flavio Kapczinski, Joao Quevedo, Felipe Dal Pizzol and Gilberto Schwartsmann

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GPCR Drug Pipeline: New Compounds for CNS Diseases

- Pp. 400-412 (13)

William K. Lim

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Drugs that Act Through Membrane Receptors and Involve an Action of Inverse Agonism

- Pp. 413-429 (17)

Gabriel Barreda-Gomez and Rafael Rodriguez-Puertas

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Neurokinin 3 (NK3) Receptor Modulators for the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders

- Pp. 430-458 (29)

Paul W. Smith and Lee A. Dawson

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Functional Interference of Dexamethasone on Some Morphine Effects: Hypothesis for the Steroid-Opioid Interaction: An Updated

- Pp. 459-496 (38)

Anna Capasso, Mariella Caputo, Mario Felice Tecce and Alberto Loizzo

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The Quest to Repair the Damaged Spinal Cord

- Pp. 497-518 (22)

Maria Teresa Moreno-Flores and Jesus Avila

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The Hypothalamus and Obesity

- Pp. 519-536 (18)

Joanne A. Harrold and Jason C.G. Halford

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Therapeutic Approach of Histamine H3 Receptors in Obesity

- Pp. 537-542 (6)

Takayuki Masaki and Hironobu Yoshimatsu

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Recent Patents on Pharmacotherapy for Alcoholism

- Pp. 543-599 (57)

Jozsef Nagy

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In Search of Novel and Therapeutically Significant Melatoninergic Ligands

- Pp. 600-610 (11)

Sejal M. Mody, Yueqing Hu, Maurice K.C.Ho and Yung H. Wong

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Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Blockers as Immunomodulators

- Pp. 611-624 (14)

Francesco Roselli, Giovanni Defazio, Paolo Livrea and Emilio Jirillo

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Global Availability and Utilization of Medication Assisted Treatment of Drug Abuse and Dependence: An Update

- Pp. 625-637 (13)

Thomas F. Kresina and Billy Pick

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Author Index to Volume 1

- Pp. 638-639 (2)

Bentham Science Publishers

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Preface

The Central Nervous System (CNS) is certainly the most complex of all biological systems. A whole range of activities, ranging from the controlling of human behavior to the functioning of all body parts, are controlled by complex chemical processes, which are regulated by the central nervous system. The vulnerability of CNS to many diseases and disorders poses an immensely important challenge to brain scientists and healthcare professionals. Understanding of neurological and neuroskeletal disorders at the molecular level is essential to tackle the associated diseases. Our understanding of how dementia develops and progresses, why certain age groups are vulnerable to Parkinson’s disease, how memory functions, and why excitability of neurons suddenly leads to movements, is far from perfect.

This compilation of reviews on some of these important topics presents the current state of knowledge which should be of benefit to practitioners and researchers. The chapters contain in this volume are the updated version of articles published in Recent Patents on CNS Drug Discovery. Thirty well-written reviews by some of the leading experts in the field will hopefully be welcomed by the CNS community. The topics covered include drug discovery and development for dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinsonism, anxiety and depression, movement disorders and epilepsy, and other neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. These review articles have been contributed by leading researchers in specific fields. We are grateful to all the eminent contributors for their efforts in writing these excellent reviews.

We are thankful to the management and staff of Bentham Science Publishers, particularly Mr. Mahmood Alam (Director), Ms. Samina Khan, Ms. Taqdees Malik and Ms. Sadaf Idrees Khan, for their untiring efforts in compilation of the first volume of this important eBook series.

Prof. Dr. Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS
Prof. Dr. M. Iqbal Choudhary
Editors

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Prof. Dr. Atta-ur-Rahman FRS
University of Karachi
Pakistan



M. Iqbal Choudhary
University of Karachi
Pakistan





Contributor(s):
Michela Pollicita
Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences
University of Rome "Tor Vergata"
Rome
Italy



Luigi Ronga
Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences
University of Rome "Tor Vergata"
Rome
Italy



Valentina Svicher
Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences
University of Rome "Tor Vergata"
Rome
Italy



Carlo Federico Perno
Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences
University of Rome "Tor Vergata"
Rome
Italy



Stefano Aquaro
Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences
University of Rome “Tor Vergata”
Rome
Italy

Department of Pharmaco-Biology
University of Calabria
Cosenza
Italy



Masahiro Kawahara
Department of Analytical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Kyushu University of Health and Welfare
1714-1 Yoshino-cho, Nobeoka-city
Miyazaki, 882-8508
Japan



Keiko Konoha
Department of Analytical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Kyushu University of Health and Welfare
1714-1 Yoshino-cho, Nobeoka-city
Miyazaki, 882-8508
Japan



Tetsuya Nagata
Department of Analytical Chemistry
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University of Health and Welfare
1714-1 Yoshino-cho, Nobeoka-city
Miyazaki, 882-8508
Japan



Yutaka Sadakane
Department of Analytical Chemistry
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University of Health and Welfare
1714-1 Yoshino-cho, Nobeoka-city
Miyazaki, 882-8508
Japan



Miao-Kun Sun
Blanchette Rockefeller Neurosciences Institute, 9601 Medical Center Drive
Academic & Research Building, The 3rd floor
Rockville
MD, 20850
USA



Daniel L. Alkon
Blanchette Rockefeller Neurosciences Institute, 9601 Medical Center Drive
Academic & Research Building, The 3rd floor
Rockville
MD, 20850
USA



Jian Guan
Liggins Institute, The University of Auckland
New Zealand



Luis Marco
Instituto de Química Orgánica General (CSIC)
C/ Juan de la Cierva, 3
Madrid, 28006
Spain



María do Carmo Carreiras
Centro de Estudos de Ciências Farmacêuticas (CECF/FFUL)
Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade de Lisboa
Av. Das Forças Armadas
Lisboa, 1600-083
Portugal



Katherine A. Price
Department of Pathology and the Centre for Neuroscience
The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 and The Mental Health Research Institute
Parkville
Victoria, 3052
Australia



Peter J. Crouch
Department of Pathology and the Centre for Neuroscience
The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 and The Mental Health Research Institute
Parkville
Victoria, 3052
Australia



Anthony R. White
Department of Pathology and the Centre for Neuroscience
The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 and The Mental Health Research Institute
Parkville
Victoria, 3052
Australia



Laurent Lecanu
McGill University Health Centre, Department of Medicine
The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada
Montreal
QC
Canada



Vassilios Papadopoulos
The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre
Montreal
QC
Canada

Department of Medicine
McGill University Health Centre
Montreal
QC
Canada

McGill University, Department of Biochemistry
Molecular and Cell Biology
Montreal
QC
Canada



Quincy J. Almeida
Sun Life Financial Movement Disorders Research and Rehabilitation Centre
Faculty of Science, BA-515, Wilfrid Laurier University
75 University Ave. W
Waterloo
ON, N2L 3C5
Canada



H. Christopher Hyson
Clinical Neurological Sciences, University of Western Ontario
339 Windermere Road, Room A10-325
London
ON, N6A 5A5
Canada



Karine Fabio
Dept. of Chemistry
Lehigh University
Bethlehem
PA, 18015
USA



Christophe Guillon
Dept. of Chemistry
Lehigh University
Bethlehem
PA, 18015
USA



Shi-Fang Lu
Azevan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Dept. of Biological Sciences, Lehigh University
Bethlehem
PA, 18015
USA



Ned D. Heindel
Dept. of Chemistry
Lehigh University
Bethlehem
PA, 18015
USA



Marvin Miller
Dept. of Chemistry
Univ. of Notre Dame
Notre Dame
IN, 46556-5670
USA



Craig F. Ferris
Azevan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Bethlehem
PA, 18015
USA

Dept. of Biological Sciences
Lehigh University
Bethlehem
PA, 18015
USA

Dept. of Psychology
Northeastern University
Boston
MA, 02115
USA



Michael J. Brownstein
Azevan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Bethlehem
PA, 18015
USA



Carrie Garripa
Dept. of Biological Sciences
Lehigh University
Bethlehem
PA, 18015
USA



Meir Steiner
McMaster University, Hamilton
Ontario, L8S4L8
Canada



Emil Coccaro
Dept. of Psychiatry
University of Chicago
Chicago
IL, 60637
USA



Eve Damiano
Azevan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Bethlehem
PA, 18015
USA



Gary A. Koppel
Azevan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Bethlehem
PA, 18015
USA



Neal G. Simon
Azevan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Bethlehem
PA, 18015
USA

Dept. of Biological Sciences
Lehigh University
Bethlehem
PA, 18015
USA



David M. Christmas
Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Bristol
Bristol
BS1 3NY
UK

School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences (M521)
University of Western Australia
Perth
Australia



Geetha Menon
School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences (M521), University of Western Australia
Perth
Australia



Sean D. Hood
School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences (M521), University of Western Australia
Perth
Australia



Alberto A. Rasia-Filho
Department of Basic Sciences and/or Program in Health Sciences
Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre
R. Sarmento Leite 245
Porto Alegre
RS, 90050-170
Brazil

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Graduation in Neurosciences, ICBS
R. Sarmento Leite 500
Porto Alegre
RS, 90050-170
Brazil

Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Graduation in Pathology
R. Sarmento Leite 245
Porto Alegre
RS, 90050-170
Brazil



Márcia Giovenardi
Department of Basic Sciences and/or Program in Health Sciences
Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre
R. Sarmento Leite 245
Porto Alegre
RS, 90050-170
Brazil



Rosa M.M. de Almeida
Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos
Laboratory of Neurosciences and Graduation in Psychology, Av. Unisinos
São Leopoldo
RS, 93022-000
Brazil



Libor Velíšek
The Saul R. Korey of Department of Neurology and Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience
Einstein/Montefiore Comprehensive Epilepsy Management Center
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Bronx
NY
USA



Jana Velíšková
The Saul R. Korey of Department of Neurology and Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience
Einstein/Montefiore Comprehensive Epilepsy Management Center
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Bronx
NY
USA



Anna Capasso
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
University of Salerno
Via Ponte Don Melillo (84084) Fisciano
Salerno
Italy



Mariella Caputo
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
University of Salerno
Via Ponte Don Melillo (84084) Fisciano
Salerno
Italy



Mario Felice Tecce
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
University of Salerno
Salerno
Italy



Alberto Loizzo
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
University of Salerno
Via Ponte Don Melillo (84084) Fisciano
Salerno
Italy



Kenji Hashimoto
Division of Clinical Neuroscience
Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health
Chiba, 260-8670
Japan



Christa E. Müller
Pharmaceutical Chemistry I, University of Bonn
PharmaCenter Bonn, Pharmaceutical Institute
Germany



Sergi Ferré
Department of Health and Human Services
National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program
Baltimore
MD
USA



Leif Hertz
College of Basic Medical Sciences
China Medical University
Shenyang, 110001
P.R. China



Ye Chen
College of Basic Medical Sciences
China Medical University
Shenyang, 110001
P.R. China



Ada Maria Tata
Dept. of Cell and Developmental Biology
La Sapienza Università di Roma
Research Center of Neuroscience Daniel Bovet
P.le A. Moro, 5
Roma, 00185
Italy



Pranela Rameshwar
UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, Dept of Medicine-Hematology/Oncology
185 South Orange Avenue, MSB, Room E-579
Newark
NJ, 07103
USA



Rafael Roesler
Laboratory of Molecular Neuropharmacology, Department of Pharmacology
Cancer Research Laboratory, Academic Hospital Research Center (CPE-HCPA)
National Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM)
Institute for Basic Health Sciences
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Porto Alegre
RS, 90050-170
Brazil



Flávio Kapczinski
National Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM)
Laboratory of Molecular Psychiatry and Bipolar Disorders Program,
Academic Hospital Research Center (CPE-HCPA), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Porto Alegre
RS, 90035-003
Brazil


Porto Alegre
RS, 90035-003
Brazil



João Quevedo
National Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM)
Porto Alegre
RS, 90035-003
Brazil

Laboratory of Neurosciences and Department of Medicine
University of Southern Santa Catarina
Criciúma
SC, 88806-000
Brazil



Felipe Dal Pizzol
Laboratory of Experimental Physiopathology and Department of Medicine
University of Southern Santa Catarina
Criciúma
SC, 88806-000
Brazil



Gilberto Schwartsmann
Cancer Research Laboratory, Academic Hospital Research Center (CPE-HCPA)
Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine
National Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM)
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Porto Alegre
RS, 90035-003
Brazil



William K. Lim
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
Lot 77, KTLD Section 22, Jalan Tun Ahmad Zaidi Adruce Kuching
Sarawak
RS, 93150
Malaysia



Gabriel Barreda-Gómez
Department of Pharmacology
Faculty of Medicine, University of the Basque Country
Vizcaya, 48940- Leioa
Spain



Rafael Rodríguez-Puertas
Department of Pharmacology
Faculty of Medicine, University of the Basque Country
Vizcaya
Leioa, 48940
Spain



Paul W. Smith
Neuroscience Centre of Excellence in Drug Discovery
GlaxoSmithKline
Harlow
UK



Lee A. Dawson
Neuroscience Centre of Excellence in Drug Discovery
GlaxoSmithKline
Harlow
UK



Anna Capasso
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
University of Salerno
Via Ponte Don Melillo (84084) Fisciano
Salerno
Italy



Mariella Caputo
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
University of Salerno
Via Ponte Don Melillo (84084) Fisciano
Salerno
Italy



Mario Felice Tecce
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
University of Salerno
Via Ponte Don Melillo (84084) Fisciano
Salerno
Italy



Alberto Loizzo
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
University of Salerno
Via Ponte Don Melillo Fisciano
Salerno, 84084
Italy



María Teresa Moreno-Flores
Centro de Biología Molecular “Severo Ochoa” (C.S.I.C.-U.A.M.), C/ Nicolás Cabrera 1
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Madrid, 28049
Spain



Jesús Ávila
Centro de Biología Molecular “Severo Ochoa” (C.S.I.C.-U.A.M.), C/ Nicolás Cabrera 1
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Madrid, 28049
Spain



Joanne A. Harrold
School of Psychology, University of Liverpool
Liverpool, L69 7ZA
UK



Jason C.G. Halford
School of Psychology, University of Liverpool
Liverpool, L69 7ZA
UK



Takayuki Masaki
Department of Internal Medicine 1
Faculty of Medicine, Oita University
1-1 Idaigaoka, Yufu-Hasama
Oita, 879-5593
Japan



Hironobu Yoshimatsu
Department of Internal Medicine 1
Faculty of Medicine, Oita University
1-1 Idaigaoka, Yufu-Hasama
Oita, 879-5593
Japan



József Nagy
Gedeon Richter Plc., Pharmacological and Drug Safety Research, Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology
Budapest 10. P.O. Box 27, H-1475
Hungary



Sejal M. Mody
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Research Institute
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Clear Water Bay, Kowloon
Hong Kong
China



Yueqing Hu
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Research Institute
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Clear Water Bay, Kowloon
Hong Kong
China



Maurice K.C. Ho
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Research Institute
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Clear Water Bay, Kowloon
Hong Kong
China



Yung H. Wong
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Research Institute
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Clear Water Bay, Kowloon
Hong Kong
China



Francesco Roselli
Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences
University of Bari
Bari
Italy

Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry
Munich
Germany



Giovanni Defazio
Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences
University of Bari
Bari
Italy



Paolo Livrea
Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences
University of Bari
Bari
Italy



Emilio Jirillo
Department of Internal Medicine
Immunology and Infectious Diseases, University of Bari
National Institute for Digestive Diseases, Castellana Grotte
Bari
Italy



Thomas F. Kresina
Division of Pharmacological Therapies, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
Rockville
MD
USA



Billy Pick
Office of HIV/AIDS, United States Agency for International Development
Washington
DC
USA





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