Current Technologies to Increase the Transdermal Delivery of Drugs


by

José J. Escobar-Chávez

DOI: 10.2174/97816080519151100101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-191-5, 2010
ISBN: 978-1-60805-385-8

  
  


Indexed in: Scopus, Chemical Abstracts

This e-book provides an overview of current technologies used to increase the topical/transdermal delivery of drugs, its protocols, ad...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Foreword , Pp. i

Matilde Merino Sanjuan
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Preface , Pp. ii

Jose Juan Escobar-Chavez
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Contributors , Pp. iii-iv (2)

Jose Juan Escobar-Chavez and Virginia Merino
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The Skin: A Valuable Route for Administration of Drugs , Pp. 1-22 (22)

Clara Luisa Dominguez-Delgado, Isabel Marlen Rodriguez-Cruz and Miriam Lopez- Cervantes
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Chemical Enhancers , Pp. 23-40 (18)

Alicia Lopez-Castellano and Virginia Merino
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Transdermal Iontophoresis , Pp. 41-52 (12)

Virginia Merino and Alicia Lopez
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Sonophoresis: A Valuable Physical Enhancer to Increase Transdermal Drug Delivery , Pp. 53-77 (25)

Jose Juan Escobar-Chavez, Dalia Bonilla-Martinez and Martha Angelica Villegas- Gonzalez
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Electroporation of the Skin , Pp. 78-95 (18)

Cesar A. Gonzalez and Boris Rubinsky
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Transdermal Drug Delivery Using Microneedles , Pp. 96-119 (24)

Ololade Olatunji, Barrrak Al-Qallaf and Diganta Bhusan Das
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Transdermal Nanocarriers , Pp. 120-141 (22)

Roberto Diaz-Torres
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Glossary , Pp. 142-144 (3)

Jose Juan Escobar-Chavez
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Index , Pp. 145-146 (2)

Jose Juan Escobar-Chavez
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Foreword

Pharmaceutical knowledge has grown exponentially over the last 30 years. We now have a much clearer understanding of how drugs are absorbed into, distributed within, and cleared from the body.

The potency of agents with which we deal continues to increase, and our ability to unravel mechanisms of action proceeds. New drugs –in particular peptides, proteins and other biological response modifiers- are being developed and new challenges await pharmaceutical scientists. Controlled drug delivery represents a field that must keep pace with changing nature of chemotherapy. Tighter control of drug input into the body in both quantitative and temporal senses is crucial, and fabrication of new delivery systems must respond to this demand for increased sophistication.

Transdermal delivery has become an important means of drug administration. A number of scientists in this area has dramatically increased and multiple symposia have focused on the subject.

The objective of this book is to provide a general and an updated overview of the theoretical and practical aspects of iontophoresis, electroporation, sonophoresis, microneedles, chemical enhancers and transdermal nanocarriers systems on the delivery of transdermal drugs. Such a generalized approach would be helpful in drug discovery, drug delivery, drug design and toxicological research.

The contributors to this text have been directed to emphasize current above mentioned technologies involved in transdermal drug delivery. Authors were selected for their knowledge and reputation in their subject area, and for their ability to address objectively the topics of this book. I believe that they have performed this task effectively, producing a text that will facilitate and optimize future developmental programs in transdermal drug delivery.

Dr. Matilde Merino Sanjuán
Universitat de València,
Spain.


Preface

The proposed e-book provides an overview of current technologies to increase the topical/transdermal delivery of drugs, its protocols, advantages and limitations and an emphatic point in the uses and applications of these mechanisms. For this reason, this e-book provides exclusive chapters on Chemical Enhancers, Iontophoresis, Sonophoresis, Electroporation, Microneedles and more recently the use of micro/nanoparticles to deliver drugs throughout the skin.

Currently, there are no exclusive books available on techniques to increase the topical/transdermal drug delivery addressing each of the techniques mentioned above in a deep and detailed way. Brief chapters and books describing only one of the methodologies are available to readers only in some drug delivery or toxicology books. For these reasons, a more detailed discussion of current mechanisms to increase the penetration of drugs through skin is currently needed. This book presents a general overview of the theoretical and practical aspects of iontophoresis, electroporation, sonophoresis, microneedles, chemical enhancers and transdermal nanocarriers systems on the delivery of transdermal drugs. Such a generalized approach would be helpful in drug discovery, drug delivery and toxicological research.

A comprehensive book which provides the basis, the practical techniques and updated research information is necessary, for this reason this e-book will be an interesting option that could be used by students of the pharmacy area (biopharmacy, pharmaceutical technology, design and development of drugs, etc.), for the pharmacy and pharmaceutical technology departments of the different Universities all over the world, pharmaceutical technologists, dermatologists, scientists and pharmaceutical R & Ds.

Transdermal drug delivery has several potential advantages over other parenteral delivery methods. Apart from the convenience and noninvasiveness, the skin also provides a “reservoir” that sustains delivery over a period of days. Furthermore, it offers multiple sites to avoid local irritation and toxicity, yet it can also offer the option to concentrate drugs at local areas to avoid undesirable systemic effects. However, at present, the clinical use of transdermal delivery is limited by the fact that very few drugs can be delivered transdermally at a viable rate. This difficulty is because the skin forms an efficient barrier for most molecules, and few noninvasive methods are known to significantly enhance the penetration of this barrier.

In order to increase the range of drugs available for transdermal delivery the use of chemical and physical enhancement techniques have been developed in an attempt to compromise skin barrier function in a reversible manner without concomitant skin irritation. Recently, several alternative physical methods have emerged to transiently break the stratum corneum barrier and also the use of chemical enhancers continues expanding. The projectile methods use propelled microparticles and nanoparticles to penetrate the skin barrier. Microneedle arrays are inserted through the skin to create pores. “Microporation” creates arrays of pores in the skin by heat and RF ablation. Also, ultrasound has been employed to disrupt the skin barrier. All these methods have their own advantages and drawbacks, but a reality is that new developments are expected in the future to make these methods even more versatile.

This e-book reviews the use of chemical enhancers and physical methods as iontophoresis, sonophoresis, electroporation, microneedles and nanocarriers to increase the penetration of drugs throughout the skin. After an introduction, the protocol, advantages and limitations, the focus turns to the relevance of experimental studies. The available techniques are then reviewed in detail, with particular emphasis on topical/transdermal delivery.

José Juan Escobar-Chávez
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
México

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Dr. José J. Escobar-Chávez
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
México




Contributor(s):
Alicia López Castellanos Ph.D.
Departamento de Fisiología, Farmacología y Toxicología
Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera
Moncada, 46113
Spain


Angélica Villegas-González M Sc.
División de Ciencias Químicas, Sección de Química Analítica
Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuautitlán Izcalli
Estado de México, 54704
México


Barrak Al-Qallaf Ph.D.
Department of Chemical Engineering
Loughborough University
Loughborough , LE113TU
UK


Boris Rubinsky Ph.D.
Graduate Program in Biophysics, Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of California at Berkeley
Berkeley
CA , 94720
USA


Cesar González Ph.D.
Universidad del Ejército y Fuerza Aérea-Escuela Militar de Graduados de Sanidad
Instituto Politécnico Nacional-Escuela Superior de Medicina
Medicina
D.F.
México


Clara Luisa Domínguez-Delgado M Sc.
Departamento de Ingeniería y Tecnología. Sección de Tecnología Farmacéutica
Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuautitlán Izcalli
Estado de México, 54704
México


Dalia Bonilla Martínez M Sc.
División de Ciencias Químicas, Sección de Química Analítica, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuautitlán Izcalli
Estado de México, 54704
México


Diganta Bus Das Ph.D.
Department of Chemical Engineering
Loughborough University
Loughborough , LE113TU
UK


Isabel Marlen Rodríguez-Cruz Ph.D.
Departamento de Ingeniería y Tecnología. Sección de Tecnología Farmacéutica
Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuautitlán Izcalli
Estado de México, 54704
México


José Juan Escobar-Chávez Ph.D.
Departamento de Ingeniería y Tecnología. Sección de Tecnología Farmacéutica
Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuautitlán Izcalli
Estado de México, 54704
México


Miriam López-Cervantes Ph.D.
Comisión Federal de Protección contra Riesgos Sanitarios. Gerencia de Medicamentos
Delegación Cuauhtémoc
Monterrey No. 33, Col. Roma
C.P. , 06700
México, D.F.


Ololade Olatunji Ph.D.
Department of Engineering Science
Oxford University
Oxford , OX1 3PG
UK


Roberto Díaz-Torres Ph.D.
Unidad de Investigación Multidisciplinaria. Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Km 2.5 Carretera Cuautitlán-Teoloyucan, San Sebastián Xhala, Cuautitlán Izcalli
Estado de México, 54714
México CP.


Virginia Merino Ph.D.
Departament de Farmàcia i Tecnologia Farmacèutica
Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de València
Burjassot, 46100
Spain




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