Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Latin America


by

Alfredo G. Torres

DOI: 10.2174/97816080519221100101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-192-2, 2010
ISBN: 978-1-60805-571-5

  
  


Indexed in: Scopus

Pathogenic Escherichia coli are known to be a common cause of diarrheal disease – a common cause of frequently occurring bacterial inf...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Foreword , Pp. i-ii (2)

Alejandro Cravioto
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Preface , Pp. iii

Alfredo G. Torres
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Contributors , Pp. iv-vi (3)

Alfredo G. Torres
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Overview of Escherichia coli , Pp. 1-7 (7)

Alfredo G Torres, Margarita MP Arenas-Hernandez and Ygnacio Martinez-Laguna
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Evolution and Epidemiology of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli , Pp. 8-24 (17)

Nina D Williams, Alfredo G Torres and Sonja J Lloyd
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Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) , Pp. 25-47 (23)

Tania AT Gomes and Bertha Gonzalez-Pedrajo
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Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli , Pp. 48-64 (17)

Fernando Navarro-Garcia, Waldir P Elias, Jose Flores and Pablo C Okhuysen
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Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli , Pp. 65-83 (19)

Beatriz EC Guth, Valeria Prado and Marta Rivas
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Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli , Pp. 84-94 (11)

Jose Flores and Pablo C. Okhuysen
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Detection and Subtyping Methods of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Strains , Pp. 95-115 (21)

Jose Flores, Pablo C. Okhuysen, Elizabeth Miliwebsky, Isabel Chinen, Tania MI Vaz and Kinue Irino
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Clinical Management of Escherichia coli Cases (The Latin America Experience) , Pp. 116-121 (6)

Horacio A Repetto
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Host Responses to Pathogenic Escherichia coli , Pp. 122-141 (20)

Cristina Ibarra and Marina Palermo
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Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in Argentina , Pp. 142-161 (20)

Marta Rivas, Nora Lia Padola, Paula MA Lucchesi and Marcelo Masana
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Escherichia coli Situation in Brazil , Pp. 162-178 (17)

Beatriz EC Guth, Cyntia F Picheth and Tania AT Gomes
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Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia coli in Chile , Pp. 179-190 (12)

Roberto M. Vidal, Angel Onate, Juan C. Salazar and Valeria Prado
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Epidemiology of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Pathotypes in Mexico, Past and Present , Pp. 191-208 (18)

Armando Navarro and Teresa Estrada-Garcia
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Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in Children from Uruguay, Colombia and Peru , Pp. 209-222 (14)

Gustavo Varela, Oscar G Gomez-Duarte and Theresa Ochoa
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Escherichia coli Animal Reservoirs, Transmission Route and Animal Disease , Pp. 223-248 (26)

Antonio F Pestana de Castro, Adriana Bentancor, Elsa C Mercado, Angel Cataldi and Alberto E Parma
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Host-pathogen Communication , Pp. 249-255 (7)

Marcelo P Sircili, Cristiano G Moreira and Vanessa Sperandio
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Future of Escherichia coli Research in Latin America , Pp. 256-261 (6)

Tania AT Gomes, Cristina Ibarra, Fernando Navarro-Garcia, Marina Palermo, Valeria Prado, Marta Rivas and Alfredo G Torres
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Index , Pp. 262-264 (3)

Alfredo G. Torres
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Foreword

In November 1946, Gerardo Varela, the most prominent Mexican bacteriologist of his time, published a paper in the bulletin of the Children's Hospital in Mexico City [1] describing the identification of a "new" type of Escherichia coli isolated from a child who had died from a severe diarrhea in the same hospital. His collaborators were Alejandro Aguirre, a young pediatrician, and Julio Carrillo, who had personally performed the microbiological studies during the autopsy and who had isolated the bacteria and kept for further studies. A few months earlier, Bray had published similar results from a group of children in the Great Britain who were dying from diarrhea in a town in England [2]. Considering that the Second World War had just ended, there was no communication between these two groups at the time. However, once published, a heated discussion began on both sides of the Atlantic with most people reluctant to accept that a bacterium like E. coli, which until then had been considered as an organism that was not associated with disease, could be the cause of these children's deaths.

Although, both Bray and Varela were able to show that the serum obtained from the children infected with these putative pathogens were able to agglutinate the bacteria in vitro, Varela's approach went a step further. One of his main interests was to study the cross reactions between different enteric organisms when tested against an antiserum raised in rabbits. For these particular assays, he primarily used antisera prepared against somatic and flagellar antigens of different types of Salmonella, which was the dominant pathogen of interest at the time. As reported in his publication [1], an antiserum prepared against the somatic antigen of Salmonella adelaide was able to agglutinate the E. coli isolated from the feces of the child who had died. A similar reaction was found with another E. coli isolated from a different child who had also died from severe diarrhea, and from a cook working in the kitchen of the hospital who had been sampled during a study to determine sources for such infections. The cross reaction tests allowed Varela and his colleagues to demonstrate that these E. coli, usually considered as a part of the normal intestinal flora, were somehow different from other E. coli found in feces from humans without diarrhea.

These two seminal studies in the mid-40's led to major discussions about the role of E. coli as a pathogen, while remaining the most modest inhabitant of the intestine of humans and animals. The discussions prompted a deluge of new research in laboratories around the world that in one form or another had found similar results. Over the next few years, groups in Britain, the United States, Brazil and Mexico sent strains of E. coli isolated from children with severe diarrhea to Copenhagen, where Fritz Kauffmann had set up a serological system in his laboratory to identify the somatic and flagellar antigens of these organisms. The most interesting finding that comes out of Kauffmann's serological studies was that E. coli isolated in different parts of the world was restricted to a few somatic and flagellar antigen combinations, called serotypes.

All of these initial studies provided the catalyst for a whole new field of research that over the past 60 years has allowed us to understand how bacteria interact with intestinal cells, and how they are able to cause diarrhea. Researchers, either born or working in Latin America, have contributed extensively and consistently to this field over the years.

Under the dynamic leadership of Alfredo Torres, who has been able to convince and cajole his friends working all over Latin America to put into writing their most recent work, this unique and interesting volume follows the tradition started by Varela and others in the 1940's and shows the developments made since those early days in the scientific and clinical study of E. coli.

I am sure that this book will help us involving in teaching microbiology and infectious diseases, and I hope it will encourage new questions and better answers in a field that, in spite of improved knowledge and increased understanding, is still looking for the necessary tools to prevent young children from dying from diarrhea around the world.

Alejandro Cravioto, M.D.
International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research
Dhaka, Bangladesh

References

  1. Varela G, Aguirre A, Carrillo J. Escherichia coli-Gomez, nueva especie aislada de un caso mortal de diarrhea. Bol Med Hosp Inf Mex 1946; 54: 623-6.
  2. Bray J. Isolation of antigenically homogenous strains of Bact. coli neapolitanum from summer diarrhea of infants. J Pathol Bacteriol 1945; 57: 239-47.

Preface

In 2009, during a session at the 7th International symposium on Shiga Toxin (Verocytotoxin) – Producing Escherichia coli Infections in Buenos Aires, Argentina, I was sitting at the back of the auditorium and realized that a large proportion of the attendees were young Latin American students, postdoctoral fellows and investigators, and many of them were participating for the first time in an international meeting, where the world experts in pathogenic E. coli research discussed the “state of the art” in the field. I also observed that many of them were current and former trainees of Latin American laboratories and institutions with a long tradition in E. coli research, and those laboratories have not only contributed to the understanding of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli infections, but played a pivotal role in the identification and characterization of other categories of pathogenic E. coli. At that moment, I realized that it was the time to organize a group that helps promoting the research of the scientist in this region and as a first task to write a comprehensive text on pathogenic E. coli, summarizing and reviewing the accumulated knowledge generated by these Latin American investigators, which had make a significant impact on our understanding of these important human pathogens.

In the first 10 years of the 21st century, the different categories of pathogenic E. coli have been reviewed extensively in review articles and some books, representing the vast body of literature on this bacterium, making pathogenic E. coli the best reviewed organism in the field of bacterial pathogenesis and infectious diseases. Even though, thousands of investigators around the world have been studying different aspects of the pathogenic attributes of E. coli for more than 60 years, pathogenic E. coli remains an important cause of diarrhea and death in infants in developing countries. Intestinal infections caused by E. coli remain as an important health problem in all Latin American countries and there was a need to publish an overall review of all the studies conducted in this region that have shown, the appearance of serotypes not previously associated with disease and the evolution of some categories of E. coli, which have become the predominant pathogenic E. coli in some of these countries. This body of knowledge produces by these investigators needed a critical review that was comprehensive and integrate all the different countries and all the researchers.

Why this book is different from other books which are already published on pathogenic E. coli? Most prior volumes concentrated on the basic and clinical research progress performed by laboratories in North America, Europe, Australia or Japan, and none of them covered the situation in Latin America. The book “Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Latin America” is a unique, comprehensive analysis of the most common categories of E. coli associated with diarrheal illness in Latin America. The aim of the book is to allow leading investigators in this region to discuss molecular mechanisms of E. coli pathogenesis followed by chapters on diagnosis, clinical management, host immune responses, animal reservoirs and epidemiology. In addition, the authors discuss the current situation of E. coli in representative countries, including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay. This e-book presents timely and vital information to understand the current work on pathogenic E. coli in Latin America and presents future research in this region. The book is divided into 17 parts. The first 2 parts introduce the foundations of E. coli and the evolution and epidemiology associated with this pathogen. Parts 3-6 review the 4 most important categories of intestinal pathogenic E. coli in Latin America. Parts 7-9 are an overview of the current knowledge regarding diagnosis, clinical management and host responses to E. coli. Part 10-14 present the current situation of E. coli infections in 7 Latin American countries. Part 15 discuss the animal reservoirs, transmission and animal disease. Part 16 introduce a relative new area of investigation regarding communication mechanisms between host and pathogen. Finally, part 17 is an assay by top investigators in the region discussing future directions of E. coli research in Latin America. I hope this book becomes a useful textbook for current and future generations of investigators and serves as a reference for the E. coli community to understand the past and present of research in Latin America.

Alfredo G. Torres, PhD
Galveston,Texas

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Alfredo G. Torres
University of Texas
USA




Contributor(s):
Cecilia M. Abe
Laboratório de Bacteriologia
Instituto Butantan
São Paulo
SP
Brazil


Margarita M.P. Arenas-Hernandez
Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Microbiológicas. B.
Universidad Autónoma de Puebla
Puebla
México


Adriana Bentancor
Universidad de Buenos Aires
Argentina


Angel Cataldi
INTA-CONICET
Argentina


Isabel Chinen
Servicio Fisiopatogenia, Departamento de Bacteriología
Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas "Carlos G. Malbrán"
Buenos Aires
Argentina


Alejandro Cravioto
ICDDR,B
Dhaka
Bangladesh


Waldir P. Elias
Laboratory of Bacteriology
Instituto Butantan
São Paulo
SP
Brazil


Teresa Estrada-Garcia
Department of Molecular Biomedicine
CINVESTAV-IPN
Mexico City
Mexico


Jose Flores
Division of Infectious Diseases
The University of Texas at Houston Medical School, Houston
Texas
USA


Tania A.T. Gomes
Departmento de Microbiologia, Imunologia, e Parasitologia
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
São Paulo
Brazil


Oscar G. Gómez-Duarte
International Enteric Vaccines Research Program, Division of Infectious Diseases
Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa Children's Hospital
USA


Bertha Gonzalez-Pedrajo
Departamento de Genética Molecular
Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
México
D.F.
Mexico


Beatriz E.C. Guth
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Parasitology
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
São Paulo
Brazil


Denise S.P.Q. Horton
Laboratório de Bacteriologia
Instituto Butantan
São Paulo
SP
Brazil


Cristina Ibarra
Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina
Universidad de Buenos Aires
Argentina


Kinue Irino
Seção de Bacteriologia
Instituto Adolfo Lutz
São Paulo
SP
Brazil


Sonja J. Lloyd
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston
Texas
USA


Paula M.A. Lucchesi
Laboratorio de Inmunoquímica y Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias
Universidad Nacional del Centro
Prov. de Buenos Aires
Tandil, 7000
Argentina


Ygnacio Martinez-Laguna
Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Microbiológicas. B.
Universidad Autónoma de Puebla
Puebla
México


Marcelo Masana
Instituto Tecnología de Alimentos. Centro de Investigación de Agroindustria
Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria
INTA. B1708WAB Morón, Prov. de Buenos Aires
Argentina


Elsa C. Mercado
Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA)
Argentina


Elizabeth Miliwebsky
Servicio Fisiopatogenia, Departamento de Bacteriología
Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas "Carlos G. Malbrán"
Buenos Aires
Argentina


Cristiano G. Moreira
Department of Microbiology
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Dallas
USA


Armando Navarro
Departamento de Salud Pública. Facultad de Medicina
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico
Mexico City
Mexico


Fernando Navarro-Garcia
Department of Cell Biology
Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV-IPN)
México
DF
Mexico


Theresa Ochoa
Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Alexander von Humboldt"
Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia
Lima
Perú


Pablo C. Okhuysen
Division of Infectious Diseases
The University of Texas at Houston Medical School, Houston
Texas
USA


Angel Oñate
Department of Microbiology
Faculty of Biological Sciences. Universidad de Concepción
Chile


Nora Lía Padola
Laboratorio de Inmunoquímica y Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias
Universidad Nacional del Centro, Prov. de Buenos Aires
Argentina


Marina Palermo
Departamento de Inmunología
Academia Nacional de Medicina and ILEX-CONICET
Buenos Aires
Argentina


Alberto E. Parma
Universidad Nacional del Centro-CICPBA
Argentina


Antonio F. Pestana de Castro
University of São Paulo
Brazil


Roxane M.F. Piazza
Laboratório de Bacteriologia
Instituto Butantan
São Paulo
SP
Brazil


Cyntia F. Picheth
Department of Medical Pathology
Federal University of Paraná
Curitiba
Brazil


Valeria Prado
Microbiology Program, Institute of Biomedical Sciences
Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile
Santiago
Chile


Horacio A. Repetto
Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine
Hospital Nacional Prof. A Posadas, University of Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Argentina


Marta Rivas
Branch of Physiopathogenesis, Department of Bacteriology
Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Infecciosas-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán"
Buenos Aires
Argentina


Juan C. Salazar
Institute of Biomedical Sciences
Faculty of Medicine Universidad de Chile
Chile


Marcelo P. Sircili
Laboratório de Bacteriologia
Instituto Butantan
São Paulo
SP, 05503-900
Brazil


Vanessa Sperandio
Department of Microbiology
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Dallas
TX, 75390-9048
USA


Alfredo G. Torres
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Department of Pathology and the Sealy Center for Vaccine Development
University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston
Texas
USA


Gustavo Varela
Departamento de Bacteriología y Virología
Instituto de Higiene "Arnoldo Berta". Facultad de Medicina
Universidad de la República
Montevideo
Uruguay


Tânia M.I. Vaz
Seção de Bacteriologia
Instituto Adolfo Lutz
São Paulo
SP
Brazil


Roberto M. Vidal
Institute of Biomedical Sciences
Faculty of Medicine Universidad de Chile
Chile


Nina D. Williams
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston
Texas
USA




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