An Atlas on the Comparative Anatomy of the Retinae of Vertebrates


by

David T. Yew, Maria S. M. Wai, Winnie W. Y. Li

DOI: 10.2174/97816080519461120101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-194-6, 2012
ISBN: 978-1-60805-581-4



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Indexed in: Scopus

This atlas covers basic as well as novel information on the retinae of various representative vertebrates including fish, amphibians, ...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i

TM Wong

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Preface

- Pp. ii

David T. Yew, Maria S. M. Wai and Winnie W. Y. Li

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Acknowledgement

- Pp. iii

David T. Yew, Maria S. M. Wai and Winnie W. Y. Li

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List of abbreviations

- Pp. iv-vi (3)

David T. Yew, Maria S. M. Wai and Winnie W. Y. Li

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Comparative Retinae and Visual Cells

- Pp. 3-190 (188)

David T. Yew, Maria S. M. Wai and Winnie W. Y. Li

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Other Retinal Layers - From Development to Maturation (A Chicken Model)

- Pp. 191-221 (31)

David T. Yew, Maria S. M. Wai and Winnie W. Y. Li

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Developing Retinae of Different Species

- Pp. 222-236 (15)

David T. Yew, Maria S. M. Wai and Winnie W. Y. Li

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Degeneration

- Pp. 237-258 (22)

David T. Yew, Maria S. M. Wai and Winnie W. Y. Li

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Index

- Pp. 259-267 (9)

David T. Yew, Maria i S. M. Wai and Winnie W. Y. Li

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Foreword

Foreword

The retina is a light sensitive portion of the eye. It contains the rods and cone. The rods are responsible for white and black vision and vision in the dark, while the cones are for color vision. In this book the authors reported a comparative study on the retinae and the visual cells from the primitive fish to mammalian species (chapter 1). Some of the species featured in this chapter are rare and the comparison between species across the major groups in the animal kingdom will provide interesting insights in evolution. For example, the double cones which were originally thought to be present only in birds are demonstrated in the retinae from fish all the way to primates. Then using the chicken model as an example they describe the development and maturation of other layers (chapter 2). The third chapter is on the development of retinae in several mammalian species. The most interesting chapter is the last chapter that describes the degenerative retinae in different animal models adapting to different environments. The function and degeneration of the retinae in different environmental situation provides a better insight on the roles, functions and capabilities of the retinae. The degeneration of the retinae is also reported in a special pathological situation such as ketamine toxicity. This serves as an example on how drug abuse may affect the nervous system. This book will be useful to visual scientists, zoologists and ophthalmologists alike, and to those who are interested in eye research in general. This is one of the few atlases on the eye that includes micrographs from many different species.

I have known Prof David Yew, the senior author since 70s when we both just joined the Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong. He was trained in anatomy and is now Chair Professor of Anatomy in the Chinese University of Hong Kong. He has worked in the field of neuroscience (brain and retina) all his academic life. He has wide research interests and the visual system and effects of drug abuse on the nervous system are two of his many interests. David is a real scholar as reflected by his active scholastic activities - over 260 research papers and over 20 book chapters and /or books. In recognition of his achievement, he has been elected fellows of the Society of Biology (UK), the Zoological Society (London) and the Royal Society for the promotion of public health (UK). He is also a fellow of the American Association of Anatomists (USA). He is on the editorial boards of several textbooks and many journals.

Dr Wai and Dr Li have both worked in the field of neuroscience for many years and have published many papers on animals and humans.

TM Wong
Former Professor and Head of Department of Physiology, and
Deputy Director and Head of College of Life Sciences and Technology,
The School of Professional and Continuing Education,
The University of Hong Kong


Preface

In the last century, two exhaustive and interesting books have been published on the retina, Walls's (1942) 'The vertebrate eye and its adaptive radiation' and Polyak's (1941) 'The retina'. These two volumes of world famous literature on the eyes have stimulated the thoughts of numerous vision researchers across the globe. With the establishment of national funding agencies in eye research around the world, the 20th century has been the most productive era of eye research, with many excellent papers published in the field, including those on the comparative anatomy of the eye. In spite of these advances, comparative atlases on the vertebrate retina, a region of the eye which is mostly explored in research, remains lacking. This atlas tries to amend some of these problems. In this volume, the authors have attempted to enlist as many as 27 specimens of different animals as well as human. All figures in the book are micrographs, either light microscopic or electron microscopic figures. For the latter, both transmission and scanning electron micrographs are included. These figures can amend information illustrated in both Walls's and Polyak's books which contained mainly hand drawn figures. This book here is divided into several chapters – with a longest chapter on the comparison between the retinas of different vertebrates. It starts with the fish retina all the way to the primate. To those interested in comparing ontogeny with phylogeny, observation of, for example, the oil droplets in the eyes of different vertebrates may be intriguing, as oil droplets in the retina are seen in the oldest fish – the sturgeon.

Comparison between different mammals – cows, pigs, dogs, cats, and monkeys give a possibility of looking at these mammals of different habitat and diet. To us, the authors, we found the cat and the monkey to be most interesting. The layers of the retinas, on the other hand, display different patterns between the fish and the mammals and are worth noting. This atlas also has other chapters on the inner layers of the retina (exclusive of the visual cells or photoreceptor cells) and discusses inner retinal layers from their morphogenesis to maturation. There are further chapters to illustrate the development of the retina in general and examples of retinal degeneration. In the acquisition of all these different specimens, especially for the rarer one (crocodiles, humans etc.), the fixation may not always be optimal due to time lapse in securing the specimens. The authors of this atlas also have a special interest in the types of visual cells and, therefore these cells may receive more coverage than others.

The book aims to at least give an introduction to the ophthalmologists, zoologists, comparative anatomists, evolutionary biologists, embryologists and vision researchers, to trigger their interest in the retina in general or in specific species. The atlas, like all others, is not meant to be exhaustive. It is hoped that a basic knowledge on the comparative retinal structures presented here would lead to further scientific enquiries and discoveries by others.

The corresponding author of this atlas, David. T. Yew would like to dedicate this work to Professor David Bernard Meyer who introduced him to the beauty of the retina many decades ago, to the late Professors Roger Warwick (author of Gray's Anatomy) and late Professor Ronald Fearnhead for their help and encouragement during periods of difficulties, to Professors M.C. Yu and Amy Yu and Professor David Randall for their everlasting friendship and unfailing support for the past twenty years.

In the course of preparation of the book, Mr. Wai-Man Chan and Miss Lai-Yin Yeung had offered much assistance and comments in the draft of the manuscript. Without their help, the completion of the book would be impossible. We are also much indebted to Dr. Bushra Siddiqui and the staff in the very detail editing of the book.

David T. Yew

Maria S. M. Wai

Winnie W. Y. Li

List of Contributors

Author(s):
David T. Yew
The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong S.A.R.


Maria S. M. Wai
The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong S.A.R.


Winnie W. Y. Li
The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong S.A.R.




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