Mycofactories


by

Ana Lúcia M. D. Leitão

DOI: 10.2174/97816080522331110101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-223-3, 2011
ISBN: 978-1-60805-309-4



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Indexed in: Scopus, Chemical Abstracts

Fungi are extremely versatile microorganisms as a biotechnology tool having the advantage of being relatively easy to grow, thus maki...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i

T. Satyanarayana

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Preface

- Pp. ii

Ana Lúcia Leitão

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iii

Ana Lúcia Leitão

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Fungal Enzymes: Present Scenario and Future Perspectives

- Pp. 3-27 (25)

J.L. Uma Maheswar Rao, G.D.Y. Boorgula and Ana Lúcia Leitão

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Fungal Lignocellulolytic Enzymes: Applications in Biodegradation and Bioconversion

- Pp. 28-44 (17)

Juana Pérez and Aurelio Moraleda-Muñoz

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Genomic and Proteomic Analyses Provide Insights into the Potential of Filamentous Fungi for Biomass Degradation

- Pp. 45-56 (12)

Jean Marie Francois and Olivier Guais

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Structural Biology of Fungal Multicopper Oxidases

- Pp. 57-72 (16)

Francisco J. Enguita

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Mold-Fermented Foods: Penicillium spp. as Ripening Agents in the Elaboration of Cheese and Meat Products

- Pp. 73-98 (26)

Renato Chávez, Francisco Fierro, Ramón O. García-Rico and Federico Laich

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Biological Activity and Production of Monascus Metabolites

- Pp. 99-108 (10)

Yii-Lih Lin, Teng-Hsu Wang, Min-Hsiung Lee and Nan-Wei Su

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Fungal Biofiltration for the Elimination of Gaseous Pollutants from Air

- Pp. 109-120 (12)

Sergio Revah, Alberto Vergara-Fernández and Sergi Hernández

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Index

- Pp. 121-147 (27)

Ana Lúcia Leitão

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Foreword

Among the estimated 1.5 million species of fungi, about 100,000 have so far been described, and therefore, concerted efforts are globally needed to fully understand their diversity and exploitation. Fungi are considered to be the second largest group of organisms after insects, and they have been extensively studied because of their fascinating nature, enormous capability to cope with and survive in a great variety of environments on Earth, and yield products useful in medicine, nutrition and industry.

Fungal enzymes have been extensively used in food industry for several decades as processing aids since they have several attributes that make them suitable for this purpose. They are being used in baking, cheese manufacture, fruit juice and wine making, brewery and starch saccharification and as animal feed supplements to mention a few. Fungal enzymes in general are non-toxic and speed up chemical reactions with utmost specificity at ambient and low temperatures, pressure and neutral pH. A large industry, therefore, exists to serve this need all over the world. Rapid strides are being made in discovering new fungal sources of useful enzymes, their cloning and over expression and improving their useful properties by enzyme engineering. Lignocellulolytic fungi and their enzymes are being investigated for their potential use in producing wealth from wastes and bioconversion of abundantly available and renewable agricultural and forest residues to valuable products such as xylooligosaccharies, bioethanol and SCP. Several fungi have recently been shown to be useful in biofiltration of waste gases and thus aid in mitigating air pollution.

Penicillium camemberti and P. roqueforti have been used for long time in ripening of cheese because their mycelium contributes significantly to the product flavour, regulates moisture loss, and prevents the development of potentially mycotoxigenic fungal species. The fermented products made employing Monascus are vastly consumed as a popular dietary supplement that claims to prevent or ameliorate hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and hyperlipidemia. The metabolites of Monascus contain bioactive ingredients such as ankaflavin, monacolins, γ-aminobutyric acid, and dimerumic acid, and among these, monacolin K is well known because this is considered to aid in controlling serum cholesterol level. Research efforts are underway to elucidate molecular mechanisms of metabolite synthesis, optimizing cultivation conditions for maximizing beneficial ingredients and to minimize toxicity.

Moulds such as Aspergillus oryzae, A. niger, Fusarium graminearum, Trichoderma viride and others are being used for heterologous gene expression because they are GRAS organisms, secrete a wide range of proteins, glycosylation similar to higher eukaryotes, integration of introduced DNA into fungal genome, thus avoiding the need to maintain selection pressure and strong promoters.

In the book entitled ‘Mycofactories’ a conscious effort has been made to choose contributors who have extensive experience and expertise on the topics stated above. The book is aimed at giving the readers an overview of recent developments in the use of fungi for a variety of purposes, product and process development, in-depth understanding of the underlying mechanisms, and traditional and novel applications. The book will be very useful as a ready reference for students and researchers in the diverse areas of biology, biotechnology and environmental sciences.

T. Satyanarayana
Department of Microbiology
University of Delhi South campus
New Delhi - 110021, India


Preface

Many fungi live saprophytically in the soil having an important role in nature in carbon recycling. They are well known for their ability to adapt to environments of high osmolarity by a mechanism involving the accumulation of low-molecular weight compounds that maintain positive turgor pressure. Indeed, fungi produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites. These molecules, that are not necessary for normal cell growth, have a tremendous impact on industry and society. As a biotechnology tools, fungi have the advantage of being relatively easy to growth on fermenters being suited for large scale production. They have been successfully employed for biotransformations ranging from food manufacturing to drug design.

The production of penicillin by filamentous fungi has been pointed out as the beginning of modern pharmaceutical industry. Recently, the synthesis of naturally occurring bioactive microbial metabolites like pyripyropenes, arisugacins in order to create novel medicines for specific clinical conditions such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, cancer, inflammation, and osteoporosis, among others, opened a new perspective for fungi applications. On the other hand, these microorganisms are responsible to secrete high levels of extracellular proteins such as plant cell wall hydrolyzing enzymes employed for the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials. Furthermore, they are known to produce a series of hydrocarbon derivatives normally present in diesel fuel. The use of fungi on bioremediation field of environmental hazardous compounds to reduce levels of heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenol and phenolic compounds is clearly in expansion. Fungi are considered as ideal green catalysts having great biotechnological impact due to their limited nutritional requirements, and their broad substrate specificity. This very high metabolic diversity has been actively exploited for many years and will be developed in the future, as new mankind challenge appeared.

Highlights included in the e-book are focused on the current and future trends about the applications of fungi as a main source for the production of enzymes and for the manufacturing of food derivatives, applications in the bioremediation field, production of pigments and other food additives.

Human needs and challenges for designing novel strategies to develop more efficient cell factories made this book interesting and actual. This e-Book publishes a substantial share of the most significant current research in the area of fungal biotechnology, and constitutes an effort to compile high level research in biotechnology with fungi as main tools.

Ana Lúcia Leitão
Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia,
Universidade Nova de Lisboa,
Campus de Caparica,
2829-516 Caparica, Portugal

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Ana Lúcia M. D. Leitão
Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Portugal




Contributor(s):
G.D.Y. Boorgula
Departmental of Microbiology
Kakatiya University
Warangal
Andhra Pradesh, 506009
India


Renato Chávez
Departamento de Biología
Facultad de Química y Biología Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH)
Santiago
Chile


Francisco J. Enguita
Unidade de Biologia Celular,
Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa
Av. Prof. Egas Moniz
Lisboa, 1649-028
Portugal


Francisco Fierro
Departamento de Biotecnología
División de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalala
Mexico D.F.
Mexico


Jean Marie François
Université de Toulouse
INSA, UPS, INP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil
Toulouse, F-31077
France


Ramón O. García-Rico
Departamento de Microbiología
Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Pamplona
Pamplona
Colombia


Olivier Guais
Université de Toulouse
INSA, UPS, INP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil
F-31077, Toulouse
France


Sergio Hernández
Departamento de Ingeniería de Procesos e Hidráulica
Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa
Apdo. Postal 55-534
Mexico D.F
CP, 09340
Mexico


Federico Laich
Unidad de Microbiologia Aplicada
Instituto Canario de Investigaciones Agrarias
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Spain


Min-Hsiung Lee
Department of Agricultural Chemistry
National Taiwan University
Taiwan


Ana Lúcia Leitão
Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Unidade de Biotecnologia Ambiental, Campus de Caparica
Caparica, 2829-516
Portugal


Yii-Lih Lin
Department of Agricultural Chemistry
National Taiwan University
Taiwan


Aurelio Moraleda-Muñoz
Departamento de Microbiología



Facultad de Ciencias
Instituto de Biotecnología
Universidad de Granada
Av. De Fuentenueva s/n
Granada, E-18071
Spain


Juana Pérez
Departamento de Microbiología
Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad de Granada
Av. De Fuentenueva s/n
Granada, E-18071
Spain


J.L. Uma Maheswar Rao
Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Unidade de Biotecnologia Ambiental, Campus de Caparica
Caparica, 2829-516
Portugal


Sergio Revah
Departamento de Procesos y Tecnología
Universidad Autónoma Metroplitana Cuajimalpa, c/o IPH, UAM-Iztapalapa
Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186
Mexico D.F., 09340
Mexico


Facultad de Ingeniería
Universidad Católica de Temuco
Rudecindo Ortega 02950, Casilla 15-D
Temuco
Chile


Nan-Wei Su
Department of Agricultural Chemistry
National Taiwan University
Taiwan


Teng-Hsu Wang
Department of Agricultural Chemistry
National Taiwan University
Taiwan




Reviews

“…an exciting and stimulating book, with numerous fine colour diagrams … it gives a topical overview of cutting-edge research….. at a time where it endeavours to develop novel strategies to meet current and emerging human needs and challenges…. a fine prospectus for, and glimpses of, future directions in industrial mycology.”


IMA Fungus, Volume 3, No.1, June 2012


“The book is magnificently laid out and goes in depth concerning topics and therefore is an ideal book as a ready reference for students and researchers in the diverse areas of biology, biotechnology and environmental sciences.”


Fungal Diversity (Springer), Volume 51, Issue 1, November 2012


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