State of the Art and Progress in Production of Biohydrogen


by

Nuri Azbar, David B. Levin

DOI: 10.2174/97816080522401120101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-224-0, 2012
ISBN: 978-1-60805-411-4



Recommend this eBook to your Library

Indexed in: Scopus, EBSCO.

Energy is vital to global prosperity, yet dependence on fossil fuels as our primary energy source contributes to global climate change...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i

T. Nejat Veziroğlu

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Preface

- Pp. ii

Nuri Azbar and David B. Levin

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iii-v (3)

Nuri Azbar and David B. Levin

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Introduction: Biohydrogen in Perspective

- Pp. 3-7 (5)

David B. Levin and Nuri Azbar

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Hydrogenase Genes and Enzymes Involved in Solar Hydrogen Production

- Pp. 8-24 (17)

Carrie Eckert, Alexandra Dubini, Jianping Yu, Paul King, Maria Ghirardi, Michael Seibert and Pin-C. Maness

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Photosynthetic Hydrogen Production: Mechanisms and Approaches

- Pp. 25-53 (29)

T.K. Antal, T.E. Krendeleva, V.Z. Pashchenko, A.B. Rubin, K. Stensjo, E. Tyystjärvi, S. Ramakrishna, D.A. Los, R. Carpentier, H. Nishihara and S.I. Allakhverdiev

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Hydrogen Production via Photofermentation

- Pp. 54-77 (24)

Basar Uyar, Gökhan Kars, Meral Yücel, Ufuk Gündüz and Inci Eroglu

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Integration of Biological H2 Producing Processes

- Pp. 78-93 (16)

Anatoly A. Tsygankov and Daria N. Tekucheva

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Fundamentals of Dark Hydrogen Fermentations: Multiple Pathways and Enzymes

- Pp. 94-111 (18)

Patrick C. Hallenbeck

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Biohydrogen Production via Fermentation of Biowastes by Microorganisms

- Pp. 112-126 (15)

Vikineswary Sabaratnam and Mohammad Ali Hassan

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Kinetics of Biohydrogen Production by Dark Fermentation Processes

- Pp. 127-136 (10)

Kaustubha Mohanty and Debabrata Das

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Hydrogen Production by Thermophilic Fermentation

- Pp. 137-159 (23)

Ed W. J. van Niel, Karin Willquist, Ahmad A. Zeidan, Truus de Vrije, Astrid E. Mars and Pieternel A. M. Claassen

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Thermodynamic and Biochemical Aspect of Hydrogen Production by Dark Fermentation

- Pp. 160-188 (29)

Richard Sparling, R. Carlo Carere, Thomas Rydzak, John Schellenberg and David B. Levin

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Role of Metabolic Engineering in Enhancing Hydrogen Yields

- Pp. 188-203 (16)

C. Carere and D.B. Levin

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Hydrogen Production by Microbial Electrohydrogenesis

- Pp. 204-226 (23)

Nathan Wrana and David B. Levin

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Use of Immobilized Cell Systems in Biohydrogen Production

- Pp. 227-249 (23)

Nuri Azbar and Ilgi K. Kapdan

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Prospects for Biohydrogen Production

- Pp. 250-257 (8)

Nuri Azbar and David B. Levin

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Index

- Pp. 258-268 (11)

Nuri Azbar and David B. Levin

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Foreword

Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world’s energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their utilization is causing global problems, such as the global warming, climate change, ozone layer depletion, acid rains, oxygen depletion and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in the planet Earth. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the Hydrogen Energy System. Hydrogen is the most efficient and the cleanest fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients, no oxygen depletion and no pollution. Of course, hydrogen is a synthetic fuel and it must be manufactured. There are various hydrogen manufacturing methods such as direct thermal, thermochemical, electrochemical, biological, etc. Among the hydrogen production methods, biological method has the potential of resulting in the most cost-effective hydrogen. Because of this, many research groups around the world are working on biological hydrogen production. In several cases, bench scale production systems have come up with encouraging results. This eBook entitled “State of the Art and Progress in Production of Biohydrogen” covers the biological hydrogen production method authoritatively from A to Z, including mechanisms of hydrogen production, hydrogenase genes and enzymes, photosynthetic methods, photo fermentation, thermophillic fermentation, dark fermentation, metabolic engineering, electrohydrogenesis and immobilized cell systems. I strongly recommend this excellent eBook to energy scientists, engineers and students who are interested in hydrogen production in general and biological hydrogen production in particular, as well as to industrial concerns who are looking for inexpensive hydrogen production technologies.

T. Nejat Veziroglu
President, International Association for Hydrogen Energy


Preface

Three of the great challenges facing humanity in the 21st century are energy supply, climate change, and global food security. Although global energy demand is expected to continue to increase, the availability of low cost energy will continue to diminish. Coupled with increasing concerns about climate change due to the CO2 release from the combustion of fossil fuels, there is now an urgent need to develop clean, renewable energy system. Hydrogen is a clean, zero carbon emission, and renewable energy carrier, with a high specific heat of combustion. Hydrogen can be used in internal combustion engines to generate mechanical power or in fuel cells to generate electricity. As hydrogen can be produced from many natural sources, it is expected to have a stable price in the future, independent of the fluctuation in price and availability of single sources. Hydrogen also allows flexibility in balancing centralized and decentralized power supply.

The use of biofuels for transport is becoming of increasing importance due to the environmental concerns relating to climate change, depleting fossil fuel reserves, and reducing reliance on imports. This is leading to international, national and regional focus on alternative energy sources. In the EU, transport is responsible for an estimated 21% of all greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A range of actions is being taken to reduce emissions from transport such as promoting the use of biofuels. Among alternative biofuels, hydrogen seems to be more advantageous due to the fact that it has a higher specific heat of combustion and does not contribute to the Greenhouse effect.

Among other alternative production methods such as pyrolysis, gasification, steam gasification, steam reforming, and electrolysis which are highly energy intensive processes, biological methods are promising both in terms of ecological and economical reasons. On the other hand, if biohydrogen systems are to become commercially competitive they must be able to synthesize H2 at rates that are sufficient to power fuel cells of sufficient size to do practical work, and further research and development aimed at increasing rates of synthesis and final yields of H2 are essential.

This eBook aims at contributing to this target. We hope that the chapters contained within this eBook will be useful and inspiring for many researchers and people who have interest in hydrogen.

Nuri Azbar
Ege University
Turkey

David B. Levin
University of Manitoba
Canada

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Nuri Azbar
Ege University
Turkey


David B. Levin
University of Manitoba
Canada




Contributor(s):
David B. Levin
Department of Biosystems Engineering
University of Manitoba
Winnipeg
Canada


Nuri Azbar
Department of Bioengineering
Ege University
Izmir
Turkey


Carrie Eckert
Biosciences Center
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Golden
USA


Alexandra Dubini
Biosciences Center
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Golden
USA


Jianping Yu
Biosciences Center
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Golden
USA


Paul King
Biosciences Center
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Golden
USA


Maria Ghirardi
Biosciences Center
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Golden
USA


Michael Seibert
Biosciences Center
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Golden
USA


Pin-C. Maness
Biosciences Center
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Golden
USA


Taras K. Antal
Department of Biophysics
Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University
Moscow
Russia


Tatyana E. Krendeleva
Department of Biophysics
Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University
Moscow
Russia


Valdimir Z. Pashchenko
Department of Biophysics
Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University
Moscow
Russia


Andrew B. Rubin
Department of Biophysics
Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University
Moscow
Russia


Karin Stensjo
Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science
The Ångström Laboratories, Uppsala University
Uppsala
Sweden


Esa Tyystjärvi
Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry
Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology, University of Turku
Turku
Finland


Seeram Ramakrishna
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative
National University of Singapore, 2
Singapore


Dmitry A. Los
Institute of Plant Physiology
Russian Academy of Sciences
Moscow
Russia


Robert Carpentier
Groupe de recherche en biologie végétale
Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
Trois-Rivières
Canada


Robert Hiroshi Nishihara
Department of Chemistry
School of Science, The University of Tokyo
Tokyo
Japan


Suleyman I. Allakhverdiev
Institute of Basic Biological Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences
Moscow
Russia


Basar Uyar
Department of Chemical Engineering
Kocaeli University
Kocaeli
Turkey


Gökhan Kars
Department of Biology
Science Faculty, Selçuk University
Konya
Turkey


Meral Yücel
Department of Biology
Middle East Technical University
Ankara
Turkey


Ufuk Gündüz
Department of Biology
Middle East Technical University
Ankara
Turkey


Inci Eroglu
Department of Chemical Engineering
Middle East Technical University
Ankara
Turkey


Anatrly A. Tsygankov
Institute of Basic Biological Problems RAS
Puschino
Russia


Daria N. Tekucheva
Institute of Basic Biological Problems RAS
Puschino
Russia


Patrick C. Hallenbeck
Département de microbiologie et immunologie
Université de Montréal
Montréal
Canada


Vikineswary Sabaratnam
Institute of Biological Science
Faculty of Science, University of Malaya
Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia


Mohammad A. Hassan
Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Serdang
Malaysia


Kaustubha Mohanty
Indian Institute of Technology
Guwahati
India


Debabrata Das
Indian Institute of Technology
Kharagpur
India


Ed W. J. van Niel
Lund University
Lund
Sweden


Karin Willquist
Lund University
Lund
Sweden


Ahmad A. Zeidan
Lund University
Lund
Sweden


Truus de Vrije
Food and Biobased Research
Wageningen
Netherlands


Astrid E. Mars
Food and Biobased Research
Wageningen
Netherlands


Pieternel A. M. Claassen
Food and Biobased Research
Wageningen
Netherlands


Richard Sparling
Department of Microbiology
University of Manitoba
Winnipeg
Canada


Carlo Carere
Department of Biosystems Engineering
University of Manitoba
Winnipeg
Canada


Thomas Rydzak
Department of Microbiology
University of Manitoba
Winnipeg
Canada


John Schellenberg
Department of Microbiology
University of Manitoba
Winnipeg
Canada


Nathan Wrana
Department of Biosystems Engineering
University of Manitoba
Winnipeg
Canada


Ilgi K. Kapdan
Department of Environmental Engineering
Dokuz Eylul University
Turkey




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