The Molecular Basis for the Link between Maternal Health and the origin of Fetal Congenital Abnormalities: An Overview of Association with Oxidative Stress


by

Bashir M. Matata , Maqsood M. Elahi

DOI: 10.2174/97816080528681110101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-286-8, 2011
ISBN: 978-1-60805-536-4

  
  


Indexed in: Chemical Abstracts, Scopus

This e-book discusses the molecular relationship between biological systems and risk factors for in-utero oxidative insults, maternal ...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Foreword , Pp. i

Kenton J. Zehr

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Preface , Pp. ii-iii (2)

Bashir M. Matata and Maqsood M. Elahi

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List of Contributors , Pp. iv-vi (3)

Bashir M. Matata and Maqsood M. Elahi

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Fetal Programming of Disease Process in Later Life- Mechanisms beyond Maternal Influence , Pp. 3-19 (17)

Maqsood M. Elahi and Bashir M. Matata

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Maternal Nutrition and its Effects on Offspring Fertility and Importance of the Periconceptional Period on Long-Term Development , Pp. 20-33 (14)

Cha Dupont, Anne-Gael Cordier, Claudine Junien, Rachel Levy and Pascale Chavatte-Palmer

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Fetal Programming of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis by Synthetic Glucocorticoids , Pp. 34-49 (16)

Marion Tegethoff and Gunther Meinlschmidt

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Epigenetic Developmental Origins Hypothesis and Oxidative Stress , Pp. 50-57 (8)

Kaoru Nagai

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Endothelial Dysfunction during Cardiac Development: A Heart to Heart Discussion of the Significance of the Nitrosative-Oxidative , Pp. 58-71 (14)

Maqsood M. Elahi and Bashir M. Matata

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Fetal and Neonatal Programming in Current Practice , Pp. 72-78 (7)

Tetyana H. Nesterenko and Hany Aly

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Oxidative Stress and its Role in Prepubertal Children , Pp. 79-97 (19)

Angelika Mohn, Valentina Chiavaroli and Francesco Chiarelli

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Maternal and Fetal Metabolic Dysfunction in Pregnancy Diseases Associated with Vascular Oxidative and Nitrative Stress , Pp. 98-115 (18)

Marcelo Gonzalez, Ernesto Munoz, Carlos Puebla, Enrique Guzman-Gutierrez, Fredi Cifuentes, Jyh K Nien, Fernando Abarzua and Andrea

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Diabetes, Developmental Programming and Oxidative Stress , Pp. 116-126 (11)

Marie Saint-Faust, Isabelle Ligi, Farid Boubred and Umberto Simeoni

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Index , Pp. 127-128 (2)

Bashir M. Matata and Maqsood M. Elahi

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Foreword

When I was a medical student taking biochemistry, a professor and an expert in protein folding explained from the lecture. “I don’t expect you to remember how proteins fold. I am here to show you a window by which you judge the world.” I am a busy clinical cardiovascular surgeon and not a molecular biochemist but I often look through his window and postulate how protein conformation could relate to antigen presentation in transplantation immunology, how proteins stick to surfaces of our extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuits, and how genetic alterations result in abnormal protein conformations affecting tissue integrity.

Effective translational research requires that clinicians frequently refresh their view through many basic science windows. I have witnessed many successful translational research efforts in various institutions that I have been fortunate to be a part, e.g. Johns Hopkins Hospital, Mayo Clinic, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, and Heart Science Center at Harefield, UK.

This book attempts to provide a similar integrative window view to a problem with international research interests larger than any institution. It is a collection of precise research into the mechanism of fetal oxidative stress, temporal susceptibility to the insult, and long-term sequelae. It is only through forums, like this, that the work of various laboratories is inextricably linked towards the common goal of disease prevention.

There are much epidemiological evidences that various environmental factors are associated with an increased incidence of fetal congenital abnormalities. These include maternal alcohol and cocaine abuse, exposure to radiation, exposure to pesticides, temporal exposure to certain medications (teratogens), advanced maternal age, maternal morbid obesity, and markedly elevated maternal hemoglobin A1c. The understanding of these and other associations have contributed greatly towards improved maternal and fetal health in the 20th century on individual basis. In summary, a real prevalence of fetal congenital abnormalities in the 21st century remains there. The key link remains undefined. Is it fetal oxidative stress?

In allopathic medicine, we treat end stage disease at an organ level medically or surgically often decades after the causative insult. This represents an enormous disconnect. It is quite inefficient and certainly not cost effective. Drs. Matata and Elahi present a laudable effort in reducing this disconnection. The search for prevention continues in many disease processes. Ultimately, the understanding requires a molecular approach for a complete picture. I applaud the contributing authors for their most valuable insights.

Kenton J. Zehr, M.D.

Chief, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery

Director, Center for Aortic Disease

Scott & White Clinic

Professor of Surgery

Texas A & M University, Health Science Center, School of Medicine

Temple, Texas


Preface

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced as by-products of mitochondria electron transport chain. At moderate concentrations (yet unknown acceptable ranges at various developmental phases), ROS functioned in normal physiology by regulating enzymes and redox-sensitive gene expression. The cell utilizes a body of machinery to balance oxidative molecules, including ROS scavengers (e.g., thiols, vitamin C and E) and detoxifying enzymes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase). Excessive ROS can cause oxidation of proteins, lipids, and DNA. It is known that such unbalanced oxidative capacity may lead to oxidative stress that is implicated in the aetiology of many diseases such as aging, cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Oxidative stress is a common feature of many commonly known or suspected risk factors of or conditions associated with adverse (poor or excessive) fetal growth and/or preterm birth, such as preeclampsia, diabetes, smoking, malnutrition or excessive nutrition, infection or inflammation. Plausibly, oxidative stress might be the key link, underlying the superficial “programming” associations between adverse fetal growth or preterm birth and later elevated risks of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and other disorders. Adverse programming may occur without affecting fetal growth, but more frequently among low birth weight infants, merely because they more frequently experience known or unknown conditions with oxidative insults.

Oxidative stress programming may operate either directly through the modulation of gene expression or indirectly through the adverse effects of oxidized lipids or other molecules at critical developmental windows and therefore resetting/programming the susceptibility to the metabolic syndrome and other disorders. Because the placenta serves as a barrier against or quencher of oxidative insults to maintain the homeostasis of foetus’ intrauterine environments, it is not a surprising observation that preterm infants are more susceptible to programming in early postnatal life, because preterm infants have to experience equivalent intrauterine development stage during postnatal development in an oxygen-rich environment. This fact justifies the main goal of this book: to investigate the susceptibility of biological systems to oxidative insults that likely depends on its resilience and maturity stage at the time of insult. And develop that there could be different critical time windows (prenatal or even postnatal) in “programming” different diseases. Plausibly, prenatal and early postnatal periods are the most critical “windows” to oxidative stress programming insults.

The first chapter offers to the reader a self-contained theory of the role of maternal nutrition and associated oxidant stress in the development of the fetal cardiovascular system. Chapters 2-4 contain new and in our opinion, important concepts on the effects of maternal nutrition on a number of areas: offspring fertility; the importance of the peri-conceptional period on long-term development; fetal programming and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis outcome and epigenetics and epigenetic dysregulation and cell growth retardation. In chapter 5, the authors discuss more precisely the endothelial dysfunction during cardiac development and the significance of cardiovascular disease risk factors associated with increased ROS and the subsequent decrease in vascular bioavailability of nitric oxide. A detailed body of evidence is presented for the impact of oxidative-nitrosative stress during maternal pregnancy on fetal development in animal models and also the association with the onset of cardiovascular conditions in adult humans. Specifically the presence of ROS in circulating blood as the key intermediary related to vascular injury and organ dysfunction has been highlighted. In addition, the evidence that describes the unique nature of relationship between cell-signalling, transcriptional mechanisms and oxidative-nitrosative stress in the progression of coronary heart disease have also been discussed.

In chapters 6-9, the focus is on the fetal and neonatal programming based on evidence from clinical practice. In particular, the discussion revolves around the probability of oxidative stress and its contribution to the pre-pubertal environment. As mentioned earlier the aim if this monograph is two folds: first to discuss the issues around maternal and fetal metabolic dysfunction in pregnancy disease and its association with vascular oxidative and nitrosative stress. Second to introduce this textbook as an avenue for future discussion on possibilities of further developments in this area, with a view that a diversity of opinions have been covered particularly in the direction in which the current research is moving.

The first editor (BM) would like to dedicate this book to his wife Aliya, children Luqman, Leila and Claire for their support. In addition, this editor would like to acknowledge the help of Ms Shirley Ratcliffe for assistance in editing the manuscripts.

The second editor (ME) would like to dedicate this book to his mother Mrs Fehmida Sultana who always helped him, not only in overcoming many difficulties in his personal life, but she also encouraged him to broaden his fields of interest and to enrich his personal experiences. The present book is the outcome of this wonderful cooperation and friendship between the two authors which, hopefully, will continue for still many years to come.

We would like to thank Prof. Kenton Zehr for writing the foreword and Bentham Science Publishers, for their support and efforts.

Bashir M. Matata

Liverpool Heart & Chest Hospital NHS Foundation

United Kingdom

Maqsood M. Elahi

The Liverpool Heart & Chest Hospital NHS Foundation Trust

Thomas Drive, Liverpool

United Kingdom

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Bashir M. Matata
Liverpool Heart & Chest Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
United Kingdom


Maqsood M. Elahi
Prince of Wales and Sydney Children Hospital
Australia




Contributor(s):
Maqsood M. Elahi
Cardiothoracic Surgeon
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Prince of Wales and Sydney Children Hospital
Randwick
NSW
Australia


Bashir M. Matata
Director of Clinical Trials Unit/Lecturer (Hon)
Liverpool Heart & Chest Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
Liverpool
L14 3PE
United Kingdom


Pascalle Chavatte-Palmer
Assistant Professor
UMR INRA/ENVA/INA P-G 1198 biologie du développement et reproduction
78350 Jouy-en-Josas
France


Gunther Meinlschmidt
Full Professor, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy
Faculty of Psychology University of Basel
Birmannsgasse 8
CH-4055 Basel
Switzerland


Hany Aly
Department of Newborn Services
The George Washington University and the Children’s National Medical Center
Washington
DC
USA


Kaoru Nagai
Assistant Professor, Department of Epigenetic Medicine
Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering
University of Yamanashi
Yamanashi , 409-3898
Japan


Angelica Mohn
Associate Professor, Departments of Pediatrics
University of Chieti
66100 Chieti
Italy


Luis Sobrevia
Associate Professor, Cellular and Molecular Physiology Laboratory (CMPL)
Division of Obstretics and Gynaecology
Medical Research Centre (CIM)
School of Medicine
Faculty of Medicine
Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile
Marcoleta 391
Santiago
Chile


Umberto Simeoni
Full Professor, Chair on Infancy
Environment and Health
The University Foundation
Université de la Méditerranée
Marseille
France


Dupont C
Service d’Histologie-Embryologie-Cytogenetique-Biologie de la Reproduction-CECOS
Hôpital Jean Verdier (AP-HP)
F-93143 Bondy
France


Levy R
Service d’Histologie-Embryologie-Cytogenetique-Biologie de la Reproduction-CECOS
Hôpital Jean Verdier (AP-HP)
F-93143 Bondy
France


Cordier AG
INRA, UMR 1198 Biologie du développement et reproduction
F-78350 Jouy en Josas
France


Junien C
INRA, UMR 1198 Biologie du développement et reproduction
F-78350 Jouy en Josas
France


Marion Tegethoff
Division of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry
Department of Psychology
University of Basel
Switzerland


Tetyana H. Nesterenko
Department of Newborn Services
The George Washington University and the Children’s National Medical Center
Washington
DC
USA


Valentina Chiavaroli
Department of Pediatrics
University of Chieti
66013 Chieti
Italy


Francesco Chiarelli
Department of Pediatrics
University of Chieti
66013 Chieti
Italy


Marcelo González
Cellular and Molecular Physiology Laboratory (CMPL)
Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology
School of Medicine
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
P.O. Box 114-D
Santiago
Chile


Ernesto Muñoz
Cellular and Molecular Physiology Laboratory (CMPL)
Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology
School of Medicine
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
P.O. Box 114-D
Santiago
Chile


Carlos Puebla
Cellular and Molecular Physiology Laboratory (CMPL)
Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology
School of Medicine
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
P.O. Box 114-D
Santiago
Chile


Enrique Guzmán-Gutiérrez
Cellular and Molecular Physiology Laboratory (CMPL)
Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology
School of Medicine
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
P.O. Box 114-D
Santiago
Chile


Fredi Cifuentes
Cellular and Molecular Physiology Laboratory (CMPL)
Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology
School of Medicine
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
P.O. Box 114-D
Santiago
Chile


Fernando Abarzúa
Cellular and Molecular Physiology Laboratory (CMPL)
Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology
School of Medicine
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
P.O. Box 114-D
Santiago
Chile


Andrea Leiva
Cellular and Molecular Physiology Laboratory (CMPL)
Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology
School of Medicine
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
P.O. Box 114-D
Santiago
Chile


Paola Casanello
Cellular and Molecular Physiology Laboratory (CMPL)
Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology
School of Medicine
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
P.O. Box 114-D
Santiago
Chile




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