Multi Drug Resistance: A Global Concern


by

Asad Ullah Khan, Raffaele Zarrilli

DOI: 10.2174/97816080529291120101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-292-9, 2012
ISBN: 978-1-60805-255-4

  
  


Indexed in: Scopus

Multiple drug resistance among bacteria has become a global issue with a considerable impact on the mortality associated with infecti...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Foreword , Pp. i

P. Nordmann

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Preface , Pp. ii

Asad U. Khan and Raffaele Zarrilli

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List of Contributors , Pp. iii

Asad U. Khan and Raffaele Zarrilli

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Role of Multidrug Resistance Associated Proteins in Drug Development , Pp. 3-35 (33)

Shu-Feng Zhou, Ming Qian Wei and Wei Duan

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Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pp. 36-46 (11)

Renato Finkelstein

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Control of Multi-Drug Resistance , Pp. 47-74 (28)

Spyros Pournaras

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Multi-Drug Resistance Among Gram-Negative Bacteria in Thailand , Pp. 75-89 (15)

Pattarachai Kiratisi

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Challenges in Management of Tuberculosis in Developing Countries , Pp. 90-99 (10)

Amita Jain and Pratima Dixit

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Drug Resistance in Tuberculosis , Pp. 100-114 (15)

UD Gupta and Anuj Kumar Gupta

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Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases: A Critical Update , Pp. 115-129 (15)

Shazi Shakil, Hafiz Muhammad Ali, Raffaele Zarrilli and Asad Ullah Khan

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Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) , Pp. 130-141 (12)

Esperanza C. Cabrera

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Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: An Emerging Threat in Health Care Facilities , Pp. 142-150 (9)

Raffaele Zarrilli, Maria Triassi and Asad U. Khan

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Prevalence, Mechanisms and Dissemination of Antimicrobial Resistance in Enteric Foodborne Bacteria , Pp. 151-175 (25)

Jing Han, Bashar W. Shaheen, Steven L. Foley and Rajesh Nayak

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The Scope of Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics in Some Countries in the Middle East and North Africa , Pp. 176-205 (30)

Noha Gamal Khalaf and Nancy D. Hanson

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Antimicrobial Resistance of Gram-Negative Bacteria in Saudi Arabia , Pp. 206-209 (4)

Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq and Ziad A. Memish

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β-Lactamases as Major Mechanism of Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacteria , Pp. 210-226 (17)

Mariagrazia Perilli, Giuseppe Celenza, Cristina Pellegrini and Gianfranco Amicosante

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Index , Pp. 227-228 (2)

Asad U. Khan and Raffaele Zarrilli

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Foreword

Once heralded as a miracle drug, penicillin was the first antibiotic in the war against infectious disease. Alexander Fleming recognized the potential for misuse and warned that misuse of antibiotics could result in the development of mutant forms of bacteria that were resistant to those drugs. Fleming’s words proved true not just for penicillin but for each antibiotic subsequently developed.

Despite the development of so many antibiotic molecules during the last fifty years, increasing antibiotic resistance worldwide may lead to therapeutic dead-end. In a growing number of cases bacteria are resistant to multiple drugs. This excellent eBook covers many aspects on resistance issues in bacteria. It covers the problem of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus that is observed in hospital and now in the community. The spread of methicillin-resistance in the community in S. aureus many complicate significantly its control-antibiotic resistance in tuberculosis which is a growing problem mostly in developing countries. The current situation in this research area is excellently summarized here. By far, its seems that resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics may significantly hamper the use of those drugs for treating Gram-negative related infections. This is the reason why the parts in this eBook on resistance in Gram-negatives are expanded significantly here. Molecular and biochemical bases of resistance in Gram negatives are given in detail here and all interesting aspects are covered from the most fundamental to the most clinical points of view. The resistance traits often identified first in many developing countries may be spread worldwide at a quite high rate due to globalization and modern travel means. This has been examplified for the carbapenemase NDM-1 that is now identified worldwide. Multidrug resistance in Gram negatives is driven by the emerging carbapenemases and the clavulanic-acid inhibited ESBLs which were among the most important emerging resistance mechanisms in Gram-negatives in 2010. They are associated to other resistance mechanisms (aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones) explaining the multidrug resistance patterns observed to a large extent. Many excellent chapters here identified those mechanisms and indicated how to control their spread. Control of spread of these multidrug resistant isolated in Gramnegative rods could be possible for a short period of time in hospitals. However, if they will spread in the community their control will be impossible. Treatment of many infections associated to multidrug resistant Gram-negatives infections will need evaluation of clinical efficacy of “old” drugs in combination (colistin, fosfomycin…) or the development of totally novel molecules. We are not sure that such molecules would be available from a clinical point of view within the next five years. Therefore, control of multidrug of those bacteria will be one of the most important issues for the human health.

It shall be kept in mind that many modern techniques in medicine (grafts, heart by-pass…) rely on antibiotics either for a prophylactic usage or for treating possible post-operative infections. Lack of efficient antibiotics may hamper significantly parts of the medicine developed in the last thirty years.

Prof. P. Nordmann
Department of Bacteriology-Virology
Med. School South Paris
France


Preface

Infectious diseases are the world’s leading cause of premature deaths, killing almost 50,000 people everyday. An increase in the emergence of health care- and community-associated infections caused by multi drug resistant bacteria is threatening the world population. The presence of antibiotic resistance genes on bacterial plasmids has further helped in the transmission and spread of drug resistance among pathogenic bacteria.

This book is composed of wide range of chapters related to multi drug resistance among infectious diseases in different parts of the world. Multiple drug resistance is becoming a big challenge for the physicians and clinicians to treat various infections. It also affects the economy of the country especially pharmaceutical industries where a huge amount of money is going into garbage.

The main focus of this book is to understand the different molecular mechanisms responsible for developing resistance against this group of antibiotics. The book is composed of 13 chapters describing mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and their prevalence in various parts of the world. Most of the chapters are covering beta-lactamases and their extended form of enzymes, their variants in infectious diseases as well as in food born pathogens. CTX-M family of enzyme which hydrolyzes third generation of cephalosporins preferably, cefotaxime, belongs to the category of Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamases (ESBLs) and includes almost 89 variants. These types of enzymes are emerging among Gram-negative bacteria; predominantly Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli and other species in different parts of the world. Another important class of beta-lactamases, the blaTEM, and blaSHV, most prevalent among enterobacteriacae in different parts, is also discussed in this book. MRSA and VRSA are also analyzed in great detail along with carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in some of the chapters. Drug Resistance in Tuberculosis and its management in developing countries are also analyzed. Finally, several approaches to control the spread of multi-drug resistance organisms are examined.

We are indebted to members of our research group, over a period of 10 years especially for scientific discussions, exchange of ideas and of course experimental data on drug resistance. Dr. Asad is highly thankful to Prof M Saleemuddin for inspiring him to take this task of compiling this information in the form of book. We also thank all the authors who kindly agreed to write chapters for the book.

We would like to thank Prof. Patrice Nordmann for writing the foreword and Bentham Science Publishers, particularly Mr. Mahmood Alam and Ms. Salma Sarfaraz for their support and efforts.

Asad U. Khan
Biotechnology Unit, AMU, Aligarh
India

Raffaele Zarrilli
Department of Preventive Medical Sciences
Federico II University of Naples
Italy

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Asad Ullah Khan
Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit
Aligarh Muslim University
Aligarh, 202002
India


Raffaele Zarrilli
Federico II University of Naples
Italy




Contributor(s):
Zhou Shu-Feng
RMIT University
Melbourne
Australia


Renato Finkelstein
Infectious Diseases Unit
Rambam Medical Center
31096–Bat Galim
Haifa


Spyros Pournaras
Medical School, University of Thessaly
Uni. Hospital of Larissa
Larissa, 41110
Greece


Pattarachai Kiratisin
Department of Microbiology
Faculty of Medicine
Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University
2 Prannok Rd., Bangkok-Noi
Bangkok, 10700
Thailand


Amita Jain
Department of Microbiology
C.S.M. Medical University
Lucknow
India


UD Gupta
National JALMA Institute for Leprosy & Other Mycobacterial Diseases
(ICMR), Tajganj
Agra, 282001
India


Shazi Shakil
Interdisciplinary Botechnology Unit
Aligarh Muslim University
Aligarh, 202002
India


Esperanza C. Cabrera
Department of Biology
De La Salle University
Manila
Philippines


Raffaele Zarrilli
Department of Preventive Medical Sciences
Hygiene Section
University of Naples ‘Federico II’
University of Naples ‘Federico II’
University of Naples ‘Federico II’
Naples
Italy


Jing Han
US Food and Drug Administration
National Center for Toxicological Research (HFT-250)
Division of Microbiology
3900 NCTR Road
Division of Microbiology
3900 NCTR Road
Division of Microbiology
3900 NCTR Road
Division of Microbiology
3900 NCTR Road
Jefferson
AK, 72079
USA


Noha Gamal Khalaf
Department of Microbioloty and Immunoloty
Faculty of Pharcy
Modern Science and Arts University
Modern Science and Arts University
Modern Science and Arts University
Creighton University School of Medicine
Cariro
NE, 68178
Egypt


Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq
Internal Medicine Services Division
Dhahran Health Center
Saudi Aramco Medical Services Organization
Saudi Aramco
Saudi Aramco Medical Services Organization
Saudi Aramco
Dhahran
Saudi Arabia


Mariagrazia Perilli
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biomediche
Università degli Studi dell'Aquila
Italy




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