Advanced Materials for Membrane Preparation


by

M.G. Buonomenna

DOI: 10.2174/97816080530871120101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-308-7, 2012
ISBN: 978-1-60805-505-0



Recommend this eBook to your Library

Indexed in: Scopus

The need to reduce pollution and the waste of energy and resources imposes a wider diffusion of environmentally friendly me...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i

Detlev Fritsch

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Preface

- Pp. ii

Maria Giovanna Buonomenna and Giovanni Golemme

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iii-v (3)

Maria Giovanna Buonomenna and Giovanni Golemme

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Oxygen Production Using Perovskite Hollow Fibre Membrane Modules

- Pp. 3-22 (20)

Xiaoyao Tan and Kang Li

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New Membranes for Hydrogen and Syngas Production

- Pp. 23-34 (12)

Fausto Gallucci and Vincenzo Larocca

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New Concepts in Molecular Sieve Membrane Preparation - What can we learn from Zeolite Membrane Preparation for MOF Membrane Synthesis?

- Pp. 35-49 (15)

J. Caro

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Review: Nanofluidic and Gas Transport in Carbon Nanotube Membranes

- Pp. 50-63 (14)

Eva Marand, Anil Surapathi, J. Karl Johnson, Prashant Kumar and Chandrashekar Shankar

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Recent Progress and Challenges on Mixed Matrix Membranes in Both Material and Configuration Aspects for Gas Separation

- Pp. 64-82 (19)

Natalia Widjojo, Yi Li, Lanying Jiang and Tai-Shung Chung

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Mixed Matrix Membranes Based on Metal Organic Frameworks

- Pp. 83-93 (11)

John P. Ferraris, Inga H. Musselman and Kenneth J. Balkus

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Preparation and Characterization of Polymeric Membranes for Fuel Cells

- Pp. 94-103 (10)

Suzana Pereira Nunes

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Perfluoropolymer Membranes for Separations and Electrochemical Processes

- Pp. 104-127 (24)

Giovanni Golemme

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Transport Properties of Membranes for Fuel Cells from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

- Pp. 128-147 (20)

Seung Soon Jang and William A. Goddard

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Membranes from Block Copolymers

- Pp. 148-162 (15)

Wilfredo Yave

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Trends in Design and Preparation of Polymeric Membranes for Pervaporation

- Pp. 163-204 (42)

D. Roizard and E. Favre

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Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Membranes for Solvent Filtration

- Pp. 205-227 (23)

V. Meynen and A. Buekenhoudt

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Nanofiltration of Aqueous Solutions: Recent Developments and Progresses

- Pp. 228-247 (20)

Bart Van der Bruggen and Jeonghwan Kim

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Recent Advances on Polymeric Membranes for Membrane Reactors

- Pp. 248-285 (38)

Maria Giovanna Buonomenna and Seung-Hak Choi

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Index

- Pp. 286-295 (10)

M.G. Buonomenna and G. Golemme

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Foreword

The urgent need to reduce not only pollution, but energy use and energy waste is leading to an increasingly wider diffusion of environmentally friendly membrane systems. With the introduction of membrane operations for new demanding applications comes the need of developing tailored membrane materials with unprecedented performances and resistance to temperature, chemicals and solvents, at an affordable cost. Today, it is common practice to specifically engineer and tailor-make new polymeric, inorganic and hybrid membranes which meet the requirements of a given industrial application. It is trivial but new materials with improved properties are required to override some limitations in applications. Especially in membrane science novel substances may open up the possibility to improve the membrane stability, quality, and precision, therefore, adding more chances for a largely improved process control and so attaining the goal fast. However, even with excellent new materials, some questions have to be solved: How to engineer a membrane material and make real membranes for real applications? What is the state of the art of the materials sciences research behind such membrane engineering? What are the perspectives of the materials science of synthetic membranes? This book is written with these questions in mind. How membranes are employed in natural gas treatment, for the separation of organics, incorporated into fuel cells, and high- and low-temperature catalytic membrane reactors are just some of the topics covered within this volume.

The e-Book edited by Dr. M. Giovanna Buonomenna and Dr. Giovanni Golemme is of interest for not only specialists in membrane science and technology but also graduate students and researchers in chemical engineering, chemistry and materials science since Advanced Materials for Membrane Preparation links academic knowledge to both research know-how and the avant-garde industrial application of advanced membrane materials.

Detlev Fritsch
Fraunhofer-Institutfür Angewandte Polymerforschung
Postfach
Potsdam, Germany


Preface

The problems related to the greenhouse effect and the scarcity of fossil hydrocarbons – the reservoirs of which will reduce dramatically during this century – impose a conscious use of energy in each of the three major sectors of energy consumptions (industry, transport and domestic uses) which roughly adsorb one third of the global demand. In 30 years from now the increase of the world population and of the average standards of life will cause a non-sustainable explosion of the energy demand, if current energy-intensive technologies will not be phased out.

The availability of cheap and performing electrolyte membranes, the heart of fuel cells, would drastically increase the efficiency in the use of fossil fuels and facilitate a wider diffusion of renewable energies through the so-called hydrogen economy. As of today, the 15% of the energy produced worldwide is employed for separation processes, and most of them are inefficient. Membrane operations are needed to reduce not only production costs but also equipment size, energy utilization and waste generation, in other words they are powerful tools for process intensification. Seawater desalination is a successful example: since membrane operations in integrated systems are 10 times more energetically efficient than thermal options, they represent the cheapest and less polluting solution for the supply of freshwater in desert and remote areas.

The early polymers used for the preparation of reverse osmosis and gas separation membranes (i.e. cellulose acetate and polysulfone) can treat moist streams or aqueous solutions, but cannot tolerate organic solvents, high temperatures and aggressive chemicals, and are unfit to operate in the harsh environments typical of the oil refining and the chemical industry. For this reason new tough materials are sought in order to expand as much as possible the province of membrane operations. The preparation of tailored synthetic membranes and their utilization on a large industrial scale are a recent development which has gained a substantial importance due to the large number of practical applications.

Today, membranes separate liquids, gases and vapours, recover valuable compounds, separate, purify and concentrate juices, milk, serum, broths in the agro-food and drug industries, and they are key components in energy conversion systems.

The modern membranes used in the various applications differ widely in their structure and function and the way they are operated in the different membrane processes. Therefore, several excellent books focus on certain aspects of membrane science such as the theoretical treatment of transport, engineering aspects of membrane process design, membrane preparation and large scale production. This book provides to scientists and students a short but reasonably comprehensive overview of the most recent research strategies for the design of membranes based on advanced materials for specific applications.

Chapters written by experts will make the reader acquainted with a variety of topics ranging from new membrane materials (inorganic oxides for gas separation, zeolites, metal organic frameworks, perovskites for oxygen production, carbon nanotubes, mixed matrix membranes, ionomers for fuel cells, perfluoropolymers, block copolymers) to processes (membrane reactors, aqueous and solvent resistant nanofiltration, pervaporation) to simulation tools of transport of molecules in carbon nanotubes and membranes for fuel cells.

The goal of the authors is to offer an up-to-date understanding of the materials science of membranes in various applications and of its present and future technical relevance.

Maria Giovanna Buonomenna
Giovanni Golemme
University of Calabria
Rende (CS) Italy

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
M.G. Buonomenna
University of Calabria
Rende (CS)
Italy




Co-Editor(s):
G. Golemme
University of Calabria
Rende (CS)
Italy




Contributor(s):
X. Tan
School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering
Tianjin Polytechnic University
Tianjin, 300160
China


K. Li
Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology
Imperial College London
South Kensington
London, SW7 2AZ
UK


F. Gallucci
Fundamentals of Chemical Reaction Engineering
Faculty of Science and Technology
University of Twente
PO Box 217
Enschede
AE, 7500
The Netherlands


V. Larocca
Enea – Division of Renewable Energy
CR Trisaia SS Jonica 106
km 419 + 500
Rotondella (MT), 75026
Italy


J. Caro
Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry
Leibniz University of Hannover
Callinstr. 3a D- 30167
Hannover
Germany


E. Marand
Department of Chemical Engineering
Virginia Tech 138 Randolph Hall
Blacksburg
VA, 24061
USA


A. Surapathi
Department of Chemical Engineering
Virginia Tech 138 Randolph Hall
Blacksburg
VA, 24061
USA


J.K. Johnson
Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
PA, 15261
USA


P. Kumar
Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
PA, 15261
USA


C. Shankar
Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
PA, 15261
USA


N. Widjojo
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
National University of Singapore
10 Kent Ridge Crescent
Singapore


Y. Li
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
National University of Singapore
10 Kent Ridge Crescent
Singapore


L. Jiang
School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering
Central South University
Changsha, 410083
Hunan People’s Republic of China


T.-S. Chung
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
National University of Singapore
10 Kent Ridge Crescent
Singapore


J.P. Ferraris
The University of Texas at Dallas
Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute
BE 26, 800 West Campbell Road
Richardson
Texas, 75080
USA


I.H. Musselman
The University of Texas at Dallas
Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute
BE 26, 800 West Campbell Road
Richardson
Texas, 75080
USA


K.J. Balkus, JR.
The University of Texas at Dallas
Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute
BE 26, 800 West Campbell Road
Richardson
Texas, 75080
USA


S. Pereira Nunes
Membranes Research Center
4700 King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
Thuwal, 23955-6900
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


G. Golemme
Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials
University of Calabria
INSTM Consortium; and ITMCNR
Via P. Bucci 45/A
Rende, 87036
Italy


S.S. Jang
Computational NanoBio Technology Laboratory
School of Materials Science and Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
771 Ferst Drive NW
Atlanta
GA, 30332-0245
USA


W.A. Goddard III
Materials and Process Simulation Center (MC 139-74)
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena
CA, 91125
USA


W. Yave
Application & Process Technology
Sulzer Chemtech Allschwill AG
Gewerbestrasse 28
Allschwill, 4123
Switzerland


D. Roizard
CNRS Laboratory (LRGP - Nancy University)
ENSIC 1 rue Grandville
Nancy, 54000
France


E. Favre
CNRS Laboratory (LRGP - Nancy University)
ENSIC 1 rue Grandville
Nancy, 54000
France


V. Meynen
Department of Chemistry
Laboratory of Adsorption and Catalysis
University of Antwerp
Universiteitsplein 1
Wilrijk, B-2610
Belgium


A. Buekenhoudt
VITO N.V.
Flemish Institute for Technological Research
Boeretang 200
Mol, B-2400
Belgium


B. Van Der Bruggen
K.U.Leuven, Department of Chemical Engineering
Laboratory of Applied Physical Chemistry and Environmental Technology
W.de Croylaan 46
Leuven, B-3001
Belgium


J. Kim
Department of Environmental Engineering
INHA University, Nam-gu
Yonghyun-dong 253
Incheon Republic of Korea 402-751, INHA
Seoul
Korea


M.G. Buonomenna
Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials and INSTM consortium
Cubo 41A University of Calabria
Via P.Bucci
Rende (CS), 87036
Italy


S.H. Choi
Advanced Membranes and Porous Materials Center
4700 King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
Thuwal, 23955-690
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia




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