Toll-Like Receptors in Diseases of the Lung


by

Catherine M. Greene

DOI: 10.2174/97816080536291120101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-362-9, 2012
ISBN: 978-1-60805-509-8



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This e-book is a review on current understanding of the role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the lung in health and disease. Topics c...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i

Noel G. McElvaney

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Preface

- Pp. ii

Catherine M. Greene

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iii-iv (2)

Catherine M. Greene

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The Toll-like Receptor Family

- Pp. 3-11 (9)

Catherine M. Greene

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TLRs in the Lung in Health and Disease

- Pp. 12-25 (14)

Toshihiro Ito and Steven L. Kunkel

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Role of Toll-Like Receptors in Asthma

- Pp. 26-45 (20)

S. Sagar, N.A. Georgiou, G. Folkerts, J. Garssen and A.D. Kraneveld

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TLRs and the Airway Epithelium in the Cystic Fibrosis Lung

- Pp. 46-66 (21)

Gerrit John and Markus O. Henke

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COPD: Contribution of TLRs to Disease Pathogenesis

- Pp. 67-86 (20)

Jeroen van Bergenhenegouwen, Gillina Bezemer, Johan Garssen and Gert Folkerts

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Pulmonary Mycobacterial Infections and TLRs

- Pp. 87-104 (18)

Valerie F.J. Quesniaux

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Bacterial Infections and Pneumonia: What is the Role of Toll-Like Receptors?

- Pp. 105-115 (11)

Sylvia Knapp

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TLRs and Viral Infection in the Lung

- Pp. 116-132 (17)

Stephanie Traub and Sebastian L. Johnston

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Toll-Like Receptor Recognition of Fungal Pathogens in the Lung

- Pp. 133-150 (18)

Sanjay H. Chotirmall, Catherine A. Coughlan and Emer P. Reeves

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The Role of Toll-Like Receptors in Lung Transplantation

- Pp. 151-162 (12)

Jonathan C. Yeung, Shaf Keshavjee and Mingyao Liu

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Index

- Pp. 163-166 (4)

Catherine M. Greene

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Foreword

The lung is the largest surface area of the body in contact with the external environment and it is constantly exposed to a wide array of microbes and particles. As a result the body’s immune system evolved a series of systems which enables it to distinguish potentially harmful agents from those which are innocuous. Two of the major systems are the adaptive and innate immune responses. The innate system is fast responding and recognizes a wide variety of potentially noxious stimuli coming into the lungs. In the majority of cases these may be microbial products, however on occasion the innate immune system can also respond to host-derived danger signals not normally encountered in the healthy lung. A key component of this response is the germ-line encoded pattern recognition receptor family of Toll-like receptors. TLRs regulate the lung’s response to potential pathogens or other environmental hazards and communicate closely with the adaptive immune response to orchestrate effective resolution of infection and a return to homeostasis. Our understanding of the role of TLRs in infectious, environmental and genetic lung diseases has advanced greatly over the last fifteen years. In this book experts from around the world offer their insights into the mechanisms of TLR-mediated responses in a number of common but serious diseases of the lung, and explore how our growing knowledge of the mode of action of TLRs can be exploited for therapeutic use.

Noel G. McElvaney
Consultant Respiratory Physician, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin Ireland
Professor of Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Ireland


Preface

Since the discovery of the mammalian Toll-like receptors in the 1990s, we have seen advances in our understanding of the basic biology, genetics and function of this family of proteins at a rate rarely paralleled. It is hoped that this book will provide the reader with a comprehensive review of what is now known regarding the roles of TLRs in maintaining pulmonary health and will outline why TLRs are so important in orchestrating the host’s innate immune response during a variety of common and often life threatening pulmonary diseases. Topics that are covered in the ten chapters include the expression, function and activation of TLRs during bacterial, viral and fungal infection of the airways – concentrating on global diseases such as pneumonia and tuberculosis; the role of TLRs in the pathogenesis of important genetic and environmental pulmonary disorders such as cystic fibrosis, COPD and asthma; and TLR biology in the context of transplantation. Each chapter highlights recent advances in the area, explores the usefulness and current status of TLR-directed therapies and all are written by leading experts in the field.

Catherine M. Greene
Respiratory Research Division
Department of Medicine
Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Ireland

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Catherine M. Greene
Respiratory Research Division
Department of Medicine
Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Ireland




Contributor(s):
Gillina Bezemer
Division of Pharmacology
Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Faculty of Science, Utrecht University
Utrecht
The Netherlands


Sanjay H. Chotirmall
Respiratory Research - Dept. Medicine
Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Education and Research Centre, Beaumont Hospital
Dublin 9
Ireland


Catherine A. Coughlan
Respiratory Research - Dept. Medicine
Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Education and Research Centre, Beaumont Hospital
Dublin 9
Ireland


Gert Folkerts
Division of Pharmacology
Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Faculty of Science, Utrecht University
Utrecht
The Netherlands


J. Garssen
Division of Pharmacology
Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Faculty of Science, Utrecht University
Utrecht
The Netherlands
/
Danone Research - Centre for Specialised Nutrition
Wageningen
The Netherlands


Niki A. Georgiou
Division of Pharmacology & Pathophysiology , Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Faulty of Science, Utrecht University
Utrecht
The Netherlands
/
Danone Research Centre for Specialised Nutrition
Bosrandweg 20
6704 PH Wageningen
The Netherlands


Catherine M. Greene
Respiratory Research - Dept. Medicine
RCSI Education and Research Centre
Beaumont Hospital
Dublin 9
Ireland


Markus O. Henke
Department of Pulmonary Medicine
Philipps-University Marburg
Baldingerstraße 1
Marburg, 35043
Germany


Toshihiro Ito
Department of Pathology
University of Michigan Medical School
Ann Arbor
Michigan, 48109
USA


Gerrit John
Comprehensive Pneumology Center
Institute of Lung Biology and Disease
Helmholtz Zentrum München
Ingolstädter Landstraße 1
Neuherberg, 85764
Germany


Sebastian Johnston
Department of Respiratory Medicine
National Heart & Lung Institute
Imperial College London
London, W2 1PG
UK


Shaf Keshavjee
The Latner Thoracic Surgery Research Laboratories
Toronto General Research Institute
University Health Network

/
Department of Surgery
Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto
Canada


Sylvia Knapp
Center for Molecular Medicine & Department of Medicine 1
Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine
Medical University Vienna
Waehringer Guertel 18-20
Vienna, 1090
Austria


Aletta D. Kraneveld
Division of Pharmacology
Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Faculty of Science
Utrecht University, PO box 80082
Utrecht
TB, 3508
The Netherlands


Steven L. Kunkel
Department of Pathology
University of Michigan Medical School
Ann Arbor
Michigan, 48109
USA


Mingyao Liu
Faculty of Medicine
University of Toronto
101 College Street
Toronto Medical Discovery Tower
Room 2-814
Toronto
Ontario, M5G 1L7
Canada


Valerie Quesniaux
University of Orleans and CNRS UMR6218 Molecular Immunology and Embryology
3B rue de la Ferollerie
Orleans, 45071 Cedex 2
France


Emer P. Reeves
Department of Medicine
Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Education and Research Centre, Beaumont Hospital
Dublin 9
Ireland


Siel Sagar
Division of Pharmacology & Pathophysiology
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Faulty of Science, Utrecht University
Utrecht
The Netherlands
/
Danone Research Centre for Specialised Nutrition
Bosrandweg 20
Wageningen
PH, 6704
The Netherlands


Stephanie Traub
Department of Respiratory Medicine
National Heart & Lung Institute
Imperial College London
London, W2 1PG
UK


Jeroen van Bergenhenegouwen
Danone Research – Centre for Specialised Nutrition
Wageningen
The Netherlands
/
Division of Pharmacology
Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Faculty of Science, Utrecht University
Utrecht
The Netherlands


Jonathan C. Yeung
The Latner Thoracic Surgery Research Laboratories
Toronto General Research Institute
University Health Network

/
Department of Surgery
Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto
Canada




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