Sialobiology: Structure, Biosynthesis and Function Sialic Acid Glycoconjugates in Health and Disease


by

Joe Tiralongo, Ivan Martinez-Duncker

DOI: 10.2174/97816080538651130101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-386-5, 2013
ISBN: 978-1-60805-067-3



Recommend this eBook to your Library

Indexed in: Scopus

This eBook presents a summary of central aspects of sialobiology (i.e., the study of sialic acid and its relevance to biology). The im...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i- (1)

Mark von Itzstein

Download Free

Preface

- Pp. ii-iv (3)

Joe Tiralongo and Ivan Martinez-Duncker

Download Free

List of Contributors

- Pp. v-viii (4)

Joe Tiralongo and Ivan Martinez-Duncker

Download Free

Introduction to Sialic Acid Structure, Occurrence, Biosynthesis and Function

- Pp. 3-32 (30)

Joe Tiralongo

View Abstract Purchase Chapter

Polysialic Acid

- Pp. 33-75 (43)

Chihiro Sato

View Abstract Purchase Chapter

Sialic Acid Biosynthesis in Vertebrates

- Pp. 76-114 (39)

Anja K. Münster-Kühnel and Stephan Hinderlich

View Abstract Purchase Chapter

CMP-Sialic Acid Transporter

- Pp. 115-138 (24)

Andrea Maggioni, Ivan Martinez-Duncker and Joe Tiralongo

View Abstract Purchase Chapter

Vertebrate Sialyltransferases

- Pp. 139-187 (49)

Anne Harduin-Lepers

View Abstract Purchase Chapter

Mammalian Sialidases

- Pp. 188-208 (21)

Tadashi Suzuki and Kazunori Yamaguchi

View Abstract Purchase Chapter

Bacterial Sialate O-Acetyltransferases

- Pp. 209-235 (27)

Martina Mühlenhoff and Anne K. Bergfeld

View Abstract Purchase Chapter

Sialic Acid Recognition, Removal and Surface Presentation: Role in Microbial Pathogenesis of Human Hosts

- Pp. 236-274 (39)

Christopher J. Day and Joe Tiralongo

View Abstract Purchase Chapter

Milk Sialooligosacharides: Biological Implications and Purification Strategies

- Pp. 275-312 (38)

Ulrike Hubl and Eduard Nekrasov

View Abstract Purchase Chapter

Gangliosides

- Pp. 313-380 (68)

Eduard Nekrasov and Ulrike Hubl

View Abstract Download Free

Sialic Acids and Cancer

- Pp. 381-403 (23)

Alexandre S. Stephens, Christopher J. Day and Joe Tiralongo

View Abstract Purchase Chapter

Synthesis of Sialic Acid-Containing Oligosaccharides and Sialylmimetics

- Pp. 404-447 (44)

Sadagopan Magesh and Hiromune Ando

View Abstract Purchase Chapter

Advances in Sialic Acid and Polysialic Acid Detection Methodologies

- Pp. 448-475 (28)

Sebastian P. Galuska

View Abstract Purchase Chapter

Metabolic Glycoengineering of Sialic Acids

- Pp. 476-511 (36)

Jian Du, Ruben T. Almaraz, Elaine Tan and Kevin J. Yarema

View Abstract Purchase Chapter

Index

- Pp. 512-520 (9)

Joe Tiralongo and Ivan Martinez-Duncker

Download Free

Foreword

The sialic acid family is comprised of carboxylated 9-carbon sugars (nonulosonic acids) that are found predominantly at the terminal ends of carbohydrate chains (glycans) on glycoproteins and glycolipids. Since their discovery in the late 1930s, and subsequent naming by Blix, Gottschalk and Klenk (Nature. 1957; 179: 1088), sialic acids are now recognized as occurring ubiquitously in the animal kingdom. Due to their unique chemical and physical properties, diversity of structure and exposed position, sialic acids have been implicated in numerous essential biological processes, such as neural cell growth and embryogenesis, stem cell biology, immune system regulation, human evolution, cancer progression, and microbial pathogenesis.

The growing awareness about the significance of sialic acids in human health and disease has led to an increase in research into sialic acid chemistry, biochemistry and cell biology. A eBook devoted to the description of sialic acid structure and biosynthesis, as well as the function of sialic acid in healthy cell function and disease is long overdue. In fact since the last comprehesive book published in the field in 1995 (“Biology of the Sialic Acids” by Abraham Rosenberg) the field of Sialobiology has exponentially grown. For example, many of the key enzymes involved in sialic acid biosynthesis, as well as the vast majority of sialic acid binding lectins involved in immune recognition, have only been cloned, characterised and structurally eluciated since the publication of “Biology of the Sialic Acids”. Therefore, this eBook is very timely and will prove to be an excellent reference work for a wide range of biomedical research scientists.

Mark von Itzstein
Griffith University
Australia


Preface

Although, Gunnar Blix, Alfred Gottschalk and Ernst Klenk have been rightly credited with the discovery and coining of “sialic acid”, it is the efforts of many pioneers and modern day sialic acid research groups located throughout the world to which we also owe a great debt of gratitude for giving birth to Sialobiology, the field dedicated to the multidisciplinary study of sialic acid and its relevance in biology. There is probably no other field of biology where a single molecule vastly expressed in nature has yielded the breadth and variety of biological functions. The importance of sialic acid is well justified in view of its major contribution in maintaining the homeostasis of many living organisms, particularly in humans where its study has been the focus of research for many decades and surely will continue for many more.

In this eBook we have endeavored to provide detailed reviews of the most important topics of Sialobiology, such as those from heavily studied areas that are of interest to a broad range of researchers both in the laboratory and the clinic.

This eBook encompasses 14 chapters that bring together a panel of early to mid career sialic acid researchers from all over the world to comprehensively address the state of the art in central aspects of Sialobiology. The first seven chapters cover sialic acid structure and biosynthesis, with Chapter 1 giving a general introduction on sialic acid structure, occurrence, biosynthesis and function. The subsequent chapter by Sato provides a comprehensive review of polysialic acids, the biologically important homopolymer of sialic acid, in particular Sato highlights recent advances in the study of di-, oligo- and polysialic acid residues on glycoproteins, including their distribution, chemical properties, biosynthetic pathways, and functions. Chapters 3-5 provide reviews of all key proteins involved in sialic acid biosynthesis, transport and transfer of glycoconjugates in vertebrates, specifically in Chapter 3 Münster and Hinderlich review the biosynthesis, activation and degradation of N-acetylneuraminic acid and 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononic acid. In addition, diseases and mouse models associated with the sialic acid biosynthesis pathway as well as biomedical implications are addressed. Chapter 4 explores the latest data on the elucidation of the CMP-sialic acid transporter structure-function relationship, and Chapter 5 by Harduin-Lepers reviews the origin and evolution of vertebrate sialyltransferases through molecular phylogeny and phylogenomic approaches. Chapter 6 by Suzuki and Yamaguchi summarizes the current knowledge on mammalian sialidases, highlighting the importance of addressing the characterization of these enzymes and their involvement in biological processes. The chapter by Mühlenhoff and Bergfeld describes the genetics, biochemistry and structure of bacterial sialate O-acetyltransferases, an important class of enzyme that enables bacteria to express a huge variety of surface structures involved in the evasion of the host immune response.

Chapters 8 to 11 explore sialic acid function. In Chapter 8 Day et al. discuss the role of sialic acid and sialic acid recognizing molecules in microbial pathogenesis. Chapter 9 by Hubl addresses the role of sialic acid in human nutrition, particularly milk oligosaccharides. Chapter 10 by Nekrasov and Hubl extensively reviews ganglioside structure and function, with particular emphasis on the nutritional value of gangliosides in infant nutrition. Chapter 11 reviews the role of sialic acid in cancer, one of the pathologies that has helped us to better understand the function of sialic acid, and that remains one of the main challenges for therapeutic Sialobiology.

The final part of this eBook (Chapters 12 to 14) is devoted to describing tools used to explore Sialobiology, and provides a great example of the interplay between biology and chemistry that has characterized the study of sialic acid since its origins. Magesh and Ando (Chapter 12) not only describe classical sialic acid synthetic methods, but also provide several strategies used for the design of sialylmimetics and their potential development as sialo-pharmaceuticals to treat human diseases. In Chapter 13 Galuska summarizes the various methods used to detect and analyze sialic acid and polysialic acid, and outlines the advantages and disadvantages of the current methodologies. In the final chapter Du et al., provide an extensive review on metabolic glycoengineering of sialic acids. Metabolic glycoengineering of living cells and animals is an increasingly powerful method whereby non-natural analogs of N-acetylmannosamine are integrated into the sialic acid pathway. This then permits the dynamic characterization of metabolically incorporated non-natural sialic acid into cell surface sialoglycoconjugates in place of the natural sugar. This makes metabolic glycoengineering one of the most innovative tools available for the study of sialic acid dynamics.

We would like to thank Bentham Science Publishers, particularly Director Mahmood Alam and Manager Asma Ahmed for their support and efforts. We also greatly appreciate all authors and co-authors for their hard work, patience and dedication that have made this volume possible. It is hoped that this eBook will provide valuable information not only to glycobiologists but also to all interested biomedical researchers, including pharmaceutical scientists, neuroscientists, clinicians as well as medical students.

Joe Tiralongo
Griffith University
Australia

Ivan Martinez-Duncker
Morelos State Autonomous University
Mexicoa

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Joe Tiralongo
Griffith University
Australia


Ivan Martinez-Duncker
Morelos State Autonomous University
Mexico




Contributor(s):
Ruben Almaraz
Translational Tissue Engineering Center Department of Biomedical Engineering
Robert H. and Clarice Smith Building 5029
Baltimore
MD, 21231
USA


Hiromune Ando
Department of Applied Bioorganic Chemistry
Gifu Universty
1-1 Yanagido
Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193
Japan
/
Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS)
Kyoto Universtiy



Anne Bergfeld
Department of Cellular & Molecular Medicine
University of California at San Diego
La Jolla
CA, 92093
USA


Christopher J. Day
Institute for Glycomics
Griffith University
Gold Coast campus
Queensland, 4222
Australia


Jian Du
Department of Biomedical Engineering
Translational Tissue Engineering Center
Robert H. and Clarice Smith Building 5029
Baltimore
MD, 21231
USA


Sebastian P. Galuska
Institute of Biochemistry
Faculty of Medicine
University of Giessen, Friedrichstrasse 24
Giessen, D-35392
Germany


Anne Harduin-Lepers
Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle
Université Lille Nord de France
Lille, CNRS UMR 8576, IFR 147
Villeneuve d’Ascq, 59655
France


Stephan Hinderlich
Department of Life Sciences & Technology
Laboratory of Biochemistry Beuth
University of Applied Sciences Berlin, Seestrasse 64
Berlin, 13347
Germany


Ulrike Hubl
Industrial Research Limited
Gracefield Research Centre
Lower Hutt, 5040
New Zealand


Sadagopan Magesh
Department of Applied Bioorganic Chemistry
Gifu Universty
1-1 Yanagido
Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193
Japan
/
Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS)
Kyoto Universtiy



Andrea Maggioni
Griffith University
Institute for Glycomics
Gold Coast campus
Queensland, 4222
Australia


Ivan Martínez-Duncker
Human Glycobiology Laboratory
Faculty of Sciences
UAEM
Cuernavaca
Mexico


Martina Mühlenhoff
Institut für Zelluläre Chemie
Medizinische Hochschule Hannover
Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1
Hannover, 30625
Germany


Anja K. Münster-Kühnel
Institut für Zelluläre Chemie
Medizinische Hochschule Hannover
Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1
Hannover, 30625
Germany


Eduard Nekrasov
Industrial Research Limited
Gracefield Research Centre
Lower Hutt, 5040
New Zealand


Chihiro Sato
Bioscience and Biotechnology Center
Nagoya University Chikusa
Nagoya, 464-8601
Japan


Alexandre Stephens
Institute for Glycomics
Griffith University
Gold Coast campus
Queensland, 4222
Australia


Tadashi Suzuki
Glycometabolome Team
RIKEN Advanced Science Institute
Wako
Japan
/
CREST (Core Research for Evolutionary Science and Technology)
JST (Japan Science and Technology Agency)



Elaine Tan
Department of Biomedical Engineering
Translational Tissue Engineering Center
Robert H. and Clarice Smith Building 5029
Baltimore
MD, 21231
USA


Joe Tiralongo
Institute for Glycomics
Griffith University
Gold Coast campus
Queensland, 4222
Australia


Kazunori Yamaguchi
Division of Biochemistry
Miyagi Cancer Center Research Institute
Natori
Japan


Kevin J Yarema
Department of Biomedical Engineering
Translational Tissue Engineering Center
Robert H. and Clarice Smith Building 5029
Baltimore
MD, 21231
USA




Advertisement


Related Journals



Related Books



Webmaster Contact: urooj@benthamscience.org Copyright © 2016 Bentham Science