Nutrition and Cancer From Epidemiology to Biology


by

Pier P. Claudio, Richard M. Niles

DOI: 10.2174/97816080544731120101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-447-3, 2013
ISBN: 978-1-60805-506-7



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Various estimates suggest that between 30-40% of all human cancers are related to dietary patterns. Strong epidemiological evidence f...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i

Gary G. Meadows

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Preface

- Pp. ii

Pier Paolo Claudio and Richard M. Niles

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iii-iv (2)

Pier Paolo Claudio and Richard M. Niles

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Keywords List

- Pp. v

Pier Paolo Claudio and Richard M. Niles

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Resveratrol, A Phytoalexin with a Multitude of Anti-Cancer Activities

- Pp. 3-14 (12)

Richard M. Niles and Gary O. Rankin

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Capsaicin: Potential Applications in Cancer Therapy

- Pp. 15-25 (11)

Jamie K. Lau, Kathleen C. Brown, Aaron M. Dom and Piyali Dasgupta

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Omega-3 Fatty Acids as an Adjuvant to Cancer Therapy

- Pp. 26-38 (13)

Elaine W. Hardman

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Green Tea Catechins and Cancer

- Pp. 39-49 (11)

Richard Egleton

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Receptor Independent Effects of Retinoids

- Pp. 50-64 (15)

Kinsley Kelley Kiningham and Anne Silvis

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Epigenetics as a Mechanism for Dietary Fatty Acids to Affect Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells And Leukemia - Royal Jelly for the Blood

- Pp. 65-76 (12)

Vincent E. Sollars

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Nutrition, Oxidative Stress and Cancer

- Pp. 77-86 (10)

Monica Valentovic and Nalini Santanam

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Is there an Etiologic Role for Dietary Iron and Red Meat in Breast Cancer Development?

- Pp. 87-97 (11)

John Wilkinson IV

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Isothiocyanates Target Carcinogenesis During Tumor Initiation, Promotion and Progression

- Pp. 98-107 (10)

Mary Allison Wolf and Pier Paolo Claudio

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Index

- Pp. 108-109 (2)

Pier Paolo Claudio and Richard M. Niles

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Foreword

In writing this forward, I was reminded by the common phrase, “you are what you eat”, which implies that to remain healthy one must eat healthy foods. Scientists and health professionals have long recognized the benefits of eating healthy and in selecting foods that contain specific disease preventing nutrients and micronutrients. It is now well established that nutrients in the diet prevent or retard several processes associated with cancer; however, they also can contribute to cancer risk and progression. Non-nutritive, phytochemicals present in plants are powerful antineoplastic agents on their own and can enhance the response of patients to cancer therapies or prevent cancer reoccurrence, areas that are often under appreciated by medical practitioners.

While the information on nutrition and cancer is voluminous, the scientific data have not always lead to unambiguous recommendations regarding the role of nutrition in cancer prevention and progression. Because cancer is a collection of over 100 different diseases, various types of cancer and even cancers of the same type can express differential sensitivity to nutrients and phytochemicals making it difficult to discern their beneficial or detrimental effects. The mechanisms by which nutrients and phytochemicals modulate the assorted steps involved in the cancer process are themselves multifactorial and eclectic. Such is the nature of the topics in this book.

The book includes chapters on the current state of knowledge of noteworthy plant phytochemicals such as resveratrol found in high amounts in red wine, berries, and nuts, catechins found in green tea, and capsaicin present in chili peppers. It also includes timely information on emerging areas such as the role and epigenetic mechanisms of omega 3 fatty acids present in fatty fish and nuts, which are associated with cancer prevention and therapy. Oxidative stress is generally thought to promote cancer progression, and this subject is very effectively integrated into the book via the chapters discussing the relationship between heme iron from red meat, oxidative stress, and breast cancer, the receptor independent effects of retinoids related to changes in cellular oxidative state, and lastly the complexity associated with the antioxidant mechanisms of various phytochemicals including, but not limited to, resveratrol and those found in green tea.

While we as individuals cannot modify our genetic makeup and may have little control over the multitude of carcinogens in our environment, we have the power to make healthy diet-based choices that can significantly modify cancer risk and progression. The authors have structured this book not only to review the epidemiological studies that support the roles of selected nutrients/phytochemicals in cancer control, but also they review the cellular and molecular pathways involved in their action as well as the clinical data related to their efficacy in cancer treatment. Consequently, this book has wide appeal not only to researchers in the nutrition and cancer field, but also to oncology practitioners, dieticians, as well as cancer survivors, who are interested learning how healthy dietary choices can enhance their quality of life.

Gary G. Meadows,
Washington State University
Pullman, Washington
USA


Preface

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in America. It is estimated that 42% of Americans living today may develop cancer in their lifetime. In 1971, President Nixon declared the new, aggressive "War on Cancer." In spite of these efforts, cancer death rates continue to climb. Unfortunately, this is in part due to the fact that chemotherapy and radiation have not provided the cure for cancer that was once promised. Furthermore, changes in lifestyle and dietary habits occurred, as we become a more industrialized civilization. The convenience of readily available high fat processed foods has resulted in individuals not always acquiring all the dietary components needed for proper wellbeing.

Various estimates suggest that between 30-40% of all human cancers are related to dietary patterns. Strong epidemiological evidence from population and twin studies point to dietary constituents that either contribute or protect against the development of various forms of cancer. Nutrition is a low cost, non-toxic therapy that can help to prevent or significantly delay the onset of certain cancers. Dietary constituents or supplements may also interact either in a positive or negative fashion with therapeutics agents used to treat patients with cancer.

The scientific community and the public are becoming increasingly aware of the cancer-preventive potential of a diet low in saturated fat/processed foods and high in whole grains, fruits and vegetables. Research on nutrition and effects upon cancer progression and development has become a leading topic among cancer researchers. This book is a timely collection of chapters based on research conducted by leading experts in the field of nutrition and cancer.

Research in nutrition and cancer prevention has significantly advanced our understanding of the mechanistic actions of various food components in cancer prevention. What we eat on a daily basis has a very powerful effect on our health and quality of life. By avoiding factors that increase the risk of certain cancer and including foods that protect us against this disease, we can, to a certain extent, control our own risk. Dietary components affect multiple cellular pathways and moderately inhibit or stimulate enzymes in these pathways. These actions may account for the nontoxic effects of phytochemicals and the relative lack of resistance that cancers develop to these compounds. New research suggests that multiple components of food substances have greater biologic activity than any one isolated component. This finding supports the pleiotropic action of diet and provides a potential explanation for why cancer cells do not quickly develop resistance.

This book reviews some traditional and relatively new areas of nutrition and cancer. Each chapter is written from an interdisciplinary viewpoint that combines epidemiological data with molecular biology research and where available clinical trial data. This book targets not only cancer researchers and clinicians, but also those who are interested in understanding how nutritional habits can impact our quality of life.

Pier Paolo Claudio, & Richard M. Niles,
Marshall University
Huntington, West Virginia
USA

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Pier P. Claudio
Marshall University
USA


Richard M. Niles
Marshall University
USA




Contributor(s):
Kathleen C. Brown
Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology
Marshall University
Huntington
WV, 25755
USA


Pier Paolo Claudio
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology
Marshall University
Huntington
WV, 25755
USA


Piyali Dasgupta
Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology
Marshall University
Huntington
WV, 25755
USA


Aaron M. Dom
Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology
Marshall University
Huntington
WV, 25755
USA


Richard D. Egleton
Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology
Marshall University
Huntington
WV, 25755
USA


Elaine Hardman
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology
Marshall University
Huntington
WV, 25755
USA


Kinsley Kelley Kiningham
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Belmont University School of Pharmacy
Nashville
TN, 37212
USA


Jamie K. Lau
Department of Pharmacology
Physiology and Toxicology Marshall University
Huntington
WV, 25755
USA


Richard M. Niles
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology
Marshall University
Huntington
WV, 25755
USA


Gary Rankin
Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology
Marshall University
Huntington
WV, 25755
USA


Nalini Santanam
Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology
Marshall University
Huntington
WV, 25755
USA


Anne Silvis
Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology
Marshall University
Huntington
WV, 25755
USA


Vincent Sollars
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology
Marshall University
USA


Monica Valentovic
Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology
Marshall University
Huntington
WV, 25755
USA


John Wilkinson IV
Department of Anatomy and Pathology
Marshall University
Huntington
WV, 25755
USA


Mary Allison Wolf
Department of Biochemistry
Marshall University
Huntington
WV, 25755
USA




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