Advances in the Development of Cool Materials for the Built Environment


by

Dionysia-D. Kolokotsa, Mattheos Santamouris, Hashem Akbari

DOI: 10.2174/97816080547181130101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-471-8, 2013
ISBN: 978-1-60805-597-5

  
  


Indexed in: Scopus

This e-book is a suitable reference on the technical and scientific competence related to effective application and integration of coo...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Foreword , Pp. i-ii (2)

Haider Taha
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Preface , Pp. iii-v (3)

Dionysia-Denia Kolokotsa, Mattheos Santamouris and Hashem Akbari
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List of Contributors , Pp. vi-viii (3)

Dionysia-Denia Kolokotsa, Mattheos Santamouris and Hashem Akbari
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Urban Heat Island and Mitigation Strategies at City and Building Level , Pp. 3-32 (30)

Nyuk Hien Wong and Steve Kardinal Jusuf
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White or Light Colored Cool Roofing Materials , Pp. 33-71 (39)

Afroditi Synnefa and Mattheos Santamouris
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Colored Cool Materials , Pp. 72-82 (11)

Masakazu Moriyama and Hideki Takebayashi
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Research on Thermochromic and PCM Doped Infrared Reflective Coatings , Pp. 83-103 (21)

Theoni Karlessi and Mattheos Santamouris
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Cool Pavements , Pp. 104-119 (16)

Theoni Karlessi, Niki Gaitani, Afroditi Synnefa and Mattheos Santamouris
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Materials Aspects of Solar Paint Coatings for Building Applications , Pp. 120-173 (54)

Boris Orel, Ivan Jerman, Matjaž Koželj, Lidija Slemenik Perše and Roman Kunič
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Cool Materials Rating Instrumentation and Testing , Pp. 174-194 (21)

Hashem Akbari, Ronnen Levinson and Paul Berdahl
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Modeling Cool Materials’ Properties , Pp. 195-203 (9)

Dionysia-Denia Kolokotsa, Vassilis Dimitriou and Afroditi Synnefa
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Energy and Environmental Aspects of Cool Materials , Pp. 231-272 (42)

Maria Kolokotroni and Dionysia-Denia Kolokotsa
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Policy Aspects of Cool Materials , Pp. 273-309 (37)

Julie Garman-Kolokotsa and Afroditi Synnefa
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Cool Roofs Economics and Marketing Perspective , Pp. 310-332 (23)

Robert Bird and Rebecca Tonkin
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Cool Roofs’ Case Studies , Pp. 333-381 (49)

Michele Zinzi and Emmanuel Bozonnet
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Index , Pp. 382-385 (4)

Dionysia-Denia Kolokotsa, Mattheos Santamouris and Hashem Akbari
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Foreword

Urban areas create their own climates by altering the soil-atmosphere interface’s characteristics relative to those of the surroundings. Surface alterations include changes in reflective, thermo-physical, and geometrical properties that can impact the dynamic and thermodynamic processes in the boundary layer. Cities also introduce sources of anthropogenic heat and air pollutant emissions. Collectively, these changes can affect surface and air temperatures, often times producing heat islands that impact thermal comfort, energy use, emissions and air quality. They can also modify the flow patterns, sensible and latent heat fluxes, convective cloud formation and precipitation in and around urban areas.

Mitigation of urban heat islands, or simply cooling urban areas, is a strategy aimed at countering the negative effects on energy demand and the environment. From a portfolio of several heat-island mitigation strategies, one particularly-effective measure is the control of urban albedo. Increasing the reflectivity of roof, wall, street, pavement, and parking-lot materials is at the forefront of techniques for urban cooling. Various modeling and field studies have quantified the benefits from such measures, including emission reductions and air-quality improvements. It must be stated, too, that these indirect effects of decreasing urban heat-island intensities are additional, auxiliary, yet very important benefits that are accrued in parallel and in addition to those of the direct effects of energy-demand reduction.

This eBook presents the benefits of cool materials for the built environment. It is structured so as to address the multiple aspects of these materials and their effects. Areas covered include the physical characterization of cool materials, their modeling, rating, testing, energy and environmental impacts, economics and marketing, and related policy aspects.

This eBook is edited by top experts in the field and written by leaders in each respective aspect of cool materials science and applications. The editors are internationally recognized for their expertise and work in the areas of urban heat islands, cool materials, energy and environment, energy efficiency and management, energy and climate, and solar energy. The authors of the various sections in this eBook are international experts in the many aspects of cool materials research, modeling, monitoring, marketing, and standards. They are leaders and experts representing academia, national laboratories and institutes, and the industry.

This eBook is scientifically thorough and provides hands-on knowledge that is extremely useful for researchers and practitioners in the planning, design, building sciences, energy and engineering fields, who are interested in using cool materials to achieve their energy and environmental benefits. It is a sweeping and comprehensive document that can serve as a one-stop reference for understanding, using, applying, and evaluating the multi-faceted effects of cool materials. It is a valuable addition to library shelves in institutions, organizations, and practices interested in integrated energy and environmental design of buildings and other urban structures.

Haider Taha
Altostratus Inc.
USA


Preface

Energy is one of the most important factors that define the quality of urban life and the global environmental impact of cities. The urbanization process dramatically affects energy consumption.

Moreover buildings are a major economic sector in the world and the quality of buildings shapes the life of citizens. Although there is an important increase of the budget devoted to construction, more than one billion urban citizens live in inappropriate houses while in most of the cities in less developed countries between one and two thirds of the population live in poor quality and overcrowded housing. Even in the developed world the percentage of people living in low income households is quite high.

Inappropriate housing is characterized by poor indoor environmental conditions such as extremely low or high temperatures, poor ventilation, etc. In parallel, heat island conditions in dense urban areas increase ambient temperatures and the thermal stress to buildings, especially during the summer period. Passive cooling relies on the use of techniques for solar and heat control and heat dissipation. The most important progress in passive cooling techniques recently has been in the field of cool materials as a heat dissipation technique and reduction of the energy demand in the built environment.

The purpose of this eBook is to offer urban planners, energy managers, engineers and related stakeholders an integrated source for cool materials in the built environment.

The eBook starts with an introduction of the urban heat island phenomenon and the various mitigation strategies such as increase of greenery and cool material. Chapter 2 overviews essential concepts of white and light colored cool materials while Chapter 3 addresses the colored cool materials’ properties and characteristics.

The contribution of thermochromic and phase change materials for the built environment is analyzed in Chapter 4. Studies of the cool materials composition, color-changing phase and optical properties are discussed. Innovative materials and new approaches such as cool asphalt associated with cool pavements are included in Chapter 5. Furthermore, the materials available for cool coatings are proposed and demonstrated in Chapter 6.

A detailed analysis of the rating and instrumentation procedure coupled with the necessary standards for the assessment of cool materials is included in Chapter 7. Chapter 8 overviews the various approaches developed to model the cool materials’ optical properties.

Increasing the albedo of cities using materials for buildings and the urban fabric that presents high reflectivity to the solar radiation has a positive impact on the urban environment. To this end Chapter 9 provides a quantitative analysis of the energy and environmental impact of cool materials in the built environment.

The policy domains related to cool materials products and technology are presented in Chapter 10, while the economic aspects are discussed in Chapter 11.

A series of case studies from around the world are presented in Chapter 12. The energy and environmental impact of the cool materials’ applications are analyzed in order to reveal the technology’s contribution.

The following teams should be acknowledged for their valuable contribution:

  • Athena Consulting Group, Belgium
  • Department of Building, National University of Singapore, Singapore
  • Faculty of Science & Engineering, Setsunan University, Japan
  • Heat Island Group, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada
  • Huntsman Pigments
  • Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Italy
  • Kobe University, Japan
  • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA
  • Mechanical Engineering, Brunel University, UK
  • National Institute of Chemistry of Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • National Kapodestrian University of Athens, Greece
  • Setsunan University Osaka Prefecture, Japan
  • Technical University of Crete, Greece
  • University of la Rochelle, France


We hope that this eBook will be a useful tool for designers, engineers and other experts working in the field of built environment.

Dionysia-Denia Kolokotsa
Technical University of Crete
Greece

Mattheos Santamouris
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Greece

&

Hashem Akbari
Concordia University
Canada

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Dionysia-D. Kolokotsa
Technical University of Crete
Greece


Mattheos Santamouris
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Greece


Hashem Akbari
Concordia University
Canada




Contributor(s):
Dionysia-Denia Kolokotsa
Environmental Engineering Department
Technical University of Crete
Greece


Mattheos Santamouris
Group Building Environmental Studies
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Greece


Hashem Akbari
Heat Island Group
Concordia University
Montreal
Canada


Paul Berdahl
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Berkeley
USA


Robert Bird
Huntsman Pigments
England


Emmanuel Bozonnet
University of la Rochelle
France


Vassilis Dimitriou
Technological Educational Institute of Crete
Greece


Niki Gaitani
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Greece


Julie Garman-Kolokotsa
Athena Consulting Group
Belgium


Ivan Jerman
National institute of Chemistry
Ljubljana
Slovenia


Steve Kardinal Jusuf
Department of Building
National University of Singapore
Singapore


Theoni Karlessi
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Greece


Maria Kolokotroni
Brunel University
UK


Matjaž Koželja
National Institute of Chemistry
Ljubljana
Slovenia


Roman Kunič
Fragmat Tim
Slovenia


Ronnen Levinson
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Berkeley
USA


Masakazu Moriyama
Setsunan University Osaka Prefecture
Japan


Boris Orel
National institute of Chemistry
Ljubljana
Slovenia


Lidija Slemenik Peršea
National institute of Chemistry
Ljubljana
Slovenia


Afroditi Synnefa
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Greece


Hideki Takebayashi
Kobe University
Japan


Rebecca Tonkin
Huntsman Pigments
UK


Nyuk Hien Wong



Michele Zinzi
Italian National Agency for New Technologies
Italy




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