Separating Pro-Environment Technologies for Waste Treatment, Soil and Sediments Remediation


by

Vincenzo Gente, Floriana La Marca

DOI: 10.2174/97816080547251120101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-472-5, 2013
ISBN: 978-1-60805-598-2

  
  


Indexed in: Scopus

The removal of contaminants and pollutants from natural or valuable materials is a critical issue in environmental management and cons...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Foreword , Pp. i-ii (2)

Konstantinos Komnitsas

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Preface , Pp. iii-iv (2)

Vincenzo Gente and Floriana La Marca

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List of Contributors , Pp. v-vii (3)

Vincenzo Gente and Floriana La Marca

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Waste Treatment Based on Mineral Processing Techniques , Pp. 3-29 (27)



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Challenges in the Separation of Plastics from Packaging Waste , Pp. 30-42 (13)

M.T. Carvalho

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ADR: A Classifier for Fine Moist Materials , Pp. 43-58 (16)

W. de Vries and P.C. Rem

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Sensor Based Sorting in Waste Processing , Pp. 59-76 (18)

J. Julius and Th. Pretz

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Upgrading of Post-Consumer Steel Scrap , Pp. 77-89 (13)

F. Quarta, A. Bonoli and P.C. Rem

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State of the Art of Recycling of Photovoltaic Panels Using Separation Technology , Pp. 90-108 (19)

A. Bonoli and A. Pompei

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The Control of Separation Processes in Mechanical Recycling of Waste Refrigerators by Partition Function , Pp. 109-122 (14)

F. La Marca

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A Matrix Based Approach for Modelling of Treatment Processes for Contaminated Groundwater , Pp. 123-138 (16)

V. Gente and D. Lausdei

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Separation Technologies for Inorganic Compounds Contained in Industrial Wastewaters Including Metal Ions, Metalloids, Thiosalts, Cyanide, Ammonia and Nitrate , Pp. 139-171 (33)

N. Kuyucak and I. Toreci Mubarek

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Evaluation of Sediments’ Contamination by Hyperspectral Analysis , Pp. 172-187 (16)

V. Gente, S. Geraldini, F. La Marca and F. Palombo

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Index , Pp. 188-191 (4)

Vincenzo Gente and Floriana La Marca

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Foreword

The eBook entitled «Separating Pro-Environment-Technologies for waste treatment and soil and sediments remediation» aims to underline, through several well selected and presented case studies from waste and groundwater treatment as well as soil and sediment remediation, that well established mineral processing technologies may be used with appropriate modifications for hazardous waste management and the recovery of metals, including rare and precious, and metalloids.

M. Ghiani and A. Zucca explore the potential of established mineral processing techniques, such as size classification, attrition, gravity separation and flotation for contaminated waste and dredged sediment management and the recovery of marketable products.

M.T. Carvalho discusses the application of gravity concentration and froth flotation to meet the challenges in separation of plastics from packaging material and highlights advantages and limitations.

W. de Vries and P.C. Rem assess the performance of a new type of classifier, called Advanced Dry Recovery (ADR), which is able to separate moist fines from Incinerator Bottom Ash (IBA) and Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW).

J. Julius and Th. Pretz focus on the advantages of sensor based sorting to recognize multiple material properties and its potential applications in waste processing.

A. Quarta, A. Bonoli and P.C. Rem present the advantages of a shape-sensitive magnetic separator called “Clean Scrap Machine” (CSM) that pre-sorts scrap into a bulky fine steel chips fraction of high purity.

A. Bonoli and A. Pompei present the state of the art of recycling photovoltaic panels using separation technologies which enable recovery of metals as well as other materials.

F. La Marca proposes a mathematical model that can be implemented during recycling of waste refrigerators to define a partition function, utilizing data obtained from the treatment of waste refrigerator carcasses. The partition function determines control parameters and is therefore able to assess the quality of the recovered products, and, the efficiency of the applied technologies.

V. Gente and D. Lausdei present a matrix approach for modelling of a pump and treat system that is used for groundwater decontamination. The adopted approach determines the recirculation ratio of groundwater so that its final quality can meet discharge criteria.

N. Kuyucak and I. Toreci Mubarek discuss conventional and emerging separation technologies that can be used for the removal or recovery of metals, metalloids, thiosalts, cyanide, ammonia and nitrate from industrial wastewaters.

Finally, V. Gente, S. Geraldini, F. La Marca and F. Palombo propose a new approach based on hyperspectral analysis for a reliable evaluation of contaminated dredged sediments that determines their appropriate management according to standards and regulations.

All case studies included in this eBook are of great interest to engineers, scientists from national and regional authorities as well as to SMEs/industry, researchers and consultants. This eBook is also useful for post graduate students who are involved in environmental projects. The proposed technologies contribute to waste valorisation, prevention of depletion of natural resources and minimization of environmental impacts. These technologies should also be considered during LCA studies by adopting well established technical, economic, environmental and social criteria.

The efforts of the editor Vincenzo Gente and the co-editor Floriana La Marca for the selection of the case studies and the production of this eBook are highly acknowledged.

Prof. Konstantinos Komnitsas
Technical University Crete
Dpt. Mineral Resources Engineering
Chania
Greece
Email:komni@mred.tuc.gr


Preface

When dealing with environmental issues, most of the times it is necessary to deal with contaminants or pollutants, which have to be removed from waste materials or from natural matrices.

This is the case, for example, during recovery of high-added value constituents from waste streams for recycling or reuse, and extraction (or removal) of contaminants from soil or sediments.

In both cases, the aim of the actions that have to be taken in order to tackle the environmental issues, is to separate what is useful (recyclable materials, soil and sediments) from what is useless (non recyclable materials, contaminants).

A close look at the technologies developed in mineral processing could be of great help in finding the right solution. As a matter of fact, the liberation and separation processes used for the recovery of valuable minerals from gangue are principally the same processes that can be applied to waste in order to recover valuable materials as well as to soil and sediments to eliminate contamination.

During the last decades, the raising concern in environmental issues has led to the adoption of technologies, initially developed for mineral processing. Processes that include comminution, classification or electrical and magnetic separation, hydrocycloning and flotation, can also be considered for the treatment of either waste materials or remediation of soils and sediments. Nevertheless, prior to the use of mineral technologies in environmental applications some modifications and tests are required in order to optimize treatment efficiency by considering technical, economic, environmental and social criteria.

In fact, the differences between ore deposits and waste materials, soils and sediments as well as their specific physico-chemical characteristics in each case, have to be taken into consideration:

  • Ore deposits are usually more homogeneous compared to waste materials and contaminated soils and sediments, that are often heterogeneous in terms of size distribution, and composition; - The composition of ore deposits is usually more stable while the composition of wastes, soils and sediments may vary with time even in nearby sites; in the latter case hotspots are often seen, thus making their treatment more complex;
  • The characteristics of concentrates produced during mineral processing are well specified by market standards, whereas valuable constituents that can be recovered from waste are not always specific; furthermore the establishment of different thresholds in each Member State and the plethora of legislation, beyond European Commission Directives and Best Available Techniques, for specific contaminants may impose the adoption of different treatment options.


Therefore, the aim of this eBook is to investigate how mineral processing technologies, can be modified and improved when applied to waste treatment as well as to soil and sediment remediation.

In particular, emphasis is placed on the application of different technologies to different matrices as well as the innovations foreseen from their use in environmental applications and in specific industrial sectors.

Vincenzo Gente
Environmental Engineer
Italy

Floriana La Marca
University of Rome “La Sapienza”
Rome
Italy

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Vincenzo Gente
Environmental Engineer
Italy


Floriana La Marca
University of Rome “La Sapienza”
Rome
Italy




Contributor(s):
A. Bonoli
Department of Civil Environment Materials Engineering
University of Bologna
Italy


M.T. Carvalho
CERENA
Instituto Superior Técnico
Lisboa
Portugal


W. de Vries
Department of Resoucrces & Recycling
Delft University of Technology
The Netherlands


V. Gente
Environmental Engineer
Italy


S. Geraldini
Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e Ricerca Ambientale
Rome
Italy


M. Ghiani
Department of Geoengineering and Environmental Technologies
University of Cagliari
Italy


J. Julius
Department of Processing and Recycling RWTH Aachen University
Aachen
Germany


N. Kuyucak
Golder Associates Paste Technology Ltd.
Ontario
Canada


F. La Marca
Department of Chemical Engineering Materials & Environment
University of Rome “La Sapienza”
Rome
Italy


D. Lausdei
ENVIRON Italy S.r.l.
Rome
Italy


F. Palombo
Golder Associates S.r.l
Rome
Italy


A. Pompei
Department of Civil Environment Materials Engineering
University of Bologna
Italy


Th. Pretz
Department of Processing and Recycling RWTH Aachen University
Aachen
Germany


F. Quarta
Department of Civil Environment Materials Engineering
University of Bologna
Italy


P.C. Rem
Department of Resoucrces & Recycling
Delft University of Technology
The Netherlands


Mubarek I. Toreci
Golder Associates Ltd.
Ontario
Canada


A. Zucca
Environmental Geology and Geoengineering Institute of CNR
UOS of Cagliari
Italy




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