Polymeric Nanomedicines


by

Marcel Popa , Constantin V. Uglea

DOI: 10.2174/97816080548481130101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-484-8, 2013
ISBN: 978-1-60805-628-6

  
  




Over the last few decades, numerous nanoparticle platforms have been studied for their use in therapeutic applications. This book deal...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Foreword , Pp. i-ii (2)

Raphael M. Ottenbrite
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Preface , Pp. iii-iv (2)

Marcel POPA and Constantin V. UGLEA
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List of Contributors , Pp. v-vii (3)

Marcel POPA and Constantin V. UGLEA
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Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine , Pp. 3-63 (61)

Marcel Popa and Constantin V. Uglea
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Physical and Biological Targeting , Pp. 64-118 (55)

Constantin V. Uglea and Marcel Popa
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Biomedical Evaluation and Toxicity of Polymeric Nanomedicines , Pp. 119-143 (25)

Constantin V. Uglea
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Targeting Moieties , Pp. 144-189 (46)

Constantin V. Uglea and Marcel Popa
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Polymer-Drug Conjugates , Pp. 190-232 (43)

Marcel Popa and Constantin V. Uglea
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Dendrimers: A New Tool for Drug Administration , Pp. 233-250 (18)

Constantin V. Uglea and Marcel Popa
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Polymeric Micelles , Pp. 251-292 (42)

Ioan I. Negulescu and Constantin V. Uglea
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Liposomal Formulations for Treatment of Carcinoma , Pp. 293-316 (24)

Anca N. Cadinoiu and Cătălina A. Peptu
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Polymersomes-Preparation, Characterization and Medical Applications , Pp. 317-339 (23)

Daniela Ailincăi and Marcel Popa
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Polymeric Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery to the Brain , Pp. 340-411 (72)

Silvia Vasiliu, Cristina D. Vlad, Stefania Racovita, Maria-Andreea Lungan, Lucian Eva and Raluca Munteanu
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Polymeric Nanocapsules , Pp. 412-449 (38)

Mihaela Holban, Delia Iurea (Raţă) and Marcel Popa
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Polymeric Nanomedicines and Bladder Cancer Therapy , Pp. 450-471 (22)

Constantin V. Uglea
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Polymeric Nanomedicines as a Treatment of Renal Diseases , Pp. 472-491 (20)

Ovidiu Novac and Marcel I. Popa
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Modified Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms for Colon Targeted Release , Pp. 492-542 (51)

Lacramioara Ochiuz
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Polymeric Nanomedicines in Pulmonary Delivery , Pp. 543-580 (38)

Stefania Racovita, Cristina D. Vlad and Silvia Vasiliu
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Polymeric Nanomedicines in the Therapy of Inflammatory Diseases , Pp. 581-640 (60)

Lacramioara Ochiuz
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Advances in Nanoophthalmology , Pp. 641-670 (30)

Cătălina A. Peptu, Dănuţ Costin, Anca N. Cadinoiu, Gabriela Lupescu (Andrei) and Marcel Popa
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Nanomedical Devices for Transdermal Drug Delivery , Pp. 671-697 (27)

Cristian Peptu and Leonard Ignat
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Nanomaterials and Cardiovascular Implants , Pp. 698-733 (36)

Constantin V. Uglea and Marcel Popa
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Nanoparticulate Systems in Orthopedic Surgery and Bone Disease Treatment , Pp. 734-782 (49)

Paul Botez
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Polymeric Nanomedicines: Between Tradition and Innovation , Pp. 783-790 (8)

Ioan I. Negulescu, Constantin V. Uglea and Marcel Popa
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Index , Pp. 791-810 (20)

Marcel Popa and Constantin V. Uglea
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Foreword

The medical application of nanotechnology (that is “nanomedicine”) has enormous potential to improve healthcare, particularly in the treatment of cancer. In that context polymer nanomedicines or polymer therapeutics plays a significant role due to specific properties of macromolecular compounds. At first insight nanomedicine is the rather more well-defined application of nanotechnology in the areas of healthcare and disease diagnosis and treatment. But, here, too, one encounters a bewildering array of programmes and projects. Artificial bone implants already benefit from nanotechnologically improved materials. Nanostructural surfaces can serve as scaffolding controlled tissue-growth. Of course, all kinds of medical devices profit from miniaturization of electronic components as they move beyond micro to nano. Nanoparticulate pharmaceutical agents can penetrate cells more effectively as well as being able to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB). After injecting nanoparticles into tumors, these can be stimulated electromagnetically from outside the body by emitting heat, the stimulated particle can then destroy the tumor cells.The discovery of new molecular targets and the subsequent development of novel anticancer agents offered more perspectives for the use of polymeric nanomedicines in the cancer treatment.

As we are living in a changing society and life expectancy has been continously increasing, human pathologies related to aging, such as musculoskeletal disorders, arthritis, nonhealing wounds or neurodegenerative disease, are becoming major health problems. Therefore, a switch in the therapeutic armory is urgently required. I believe that polymeric nanomedicines is the appropriate strategy to achieve an effective treatment of many incurable diseases.

The eBook “Polymeric Nanomedicines” is, in my opinion, a harmonious combination between tradition and innovation. This eBook has highlighted the use of classical organic chemistry methods for obtaining or modifying new nanoparticulate systems with specific biological activity and enhanced effectiveness. Using numerous, diverse and latest sources of information, the eBook represents a significant contribution to knowledge and development of biological active nanosystems. This eBook is useful both for specialists with experience in different fields (chemistry, biochemistry, physicians, surgeons) and young beginners who want to go deep into this fascinating field of biologically active nanoparticulate systems.

The eBook edited by Marcel Popa and Constantin V. Uglea provides a broad overview of the synthesis, characterization and applications of nanoparticulate systems especially in cancer treatment. Written by experts in their respective fields, this eBook will make the reader acquainted with a variety of topics ranging from nanotechnology definition and synthesis and characterization of polymer-drug conjugates to various applications of nanoparticulate systems in cancer treatment and toxicological aspects of these systems.

Raphael M. Ottenbrite
Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond, VA
USA


Preface

Nanomedicine is the application of nanobiotechnology to clinical medicine. Nanobiotechnologies are being used to research pathomechanism of disease, refine molecular diagnostics, and help in the discovery, development, and delivery of drugs. In some cases, nanoparticles are polymeric nanomedicine. The eBook “Polymeric Nanomedicines” covers the broad area of this field. Starting with basics, the subject is developed to potential clinical applications, many of which are still at an experimental stage.

Keeping in mind that the readers of the eBook will include nonmedical scientists, pharmaceutical personel, as well as physicians, technology descriptions and medical terminology are kept as simple as possible. We hope that readers at all levels will find it a concise, comprehensive and useful source of information.

Chapter 1 deals with the definition of nanotechnology and nanomedicine, with main areas of application and specifies the benefits of introducing nanotechnological specific methods in the investigation and treatment of certain diseases. The main categories of metal nanoparticles, their use as imaging agents, their advantages and limits are presented in separate paragraphs.

Chapter 2 describe the concept of physical and biological targeting. Physical targeting such as electroporation, ultrasound, photochemical internalization and hyperthermia as well as biological targeting strategies are described.

Biomedical evaluation and toxicological aspects of polymeric nanomedicines are described in chapter 3 and chapters 4 and 5 deals with targeting moieties and design of polymer-drug conjugates, respectively.

Dendrimers, polymeric micelles, liposomes, polymerosomes and nanocapsules are the subjects of chapters 6-10, respectively.

Drug delivery to the brain (Chapter 11), therapy of bladder cancer (Chapter 12), treatment of renal diseases (Chapter 13), colon targeted therapy (Chapyer 14), pulmonary drug delivery (Chapter 15), treatment of inflammatory diseases (Chapter 16), nanoophthalmology (Chapter 17), transdermal drug delivery (Chapter 18), cardiovascular implants (Chapter 19) and othopedic biomaterials (Chapter 20) are the specific applications of polymeric nanomedicines described in this eBook.

The eBook concludes by analysing perspectives and challenges in the application of polymeric nanomedicines in the treatment of various diseases. The second editor wishes to dedicate this eBook to Professor Ray Ottenbrite as a sign of friendship and deep respect. Both editors wish to thank Salma Sarfaraz for technical assistance and being understanding to publish this eBook.

Marcel POPA
“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Romania

Constantin V. UGLEA
“Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iasi
Romania

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Marcel Popa
"Gheorghe Asachi" Technical University of Iasi
Romania


Constantin V. Uglea
"Grigore T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iasi
Romania




Contributor(s):
Daniela Ailincăi
“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection
Department of Natural and Synthetic Polymers
Prof. dr. docent Dimitrie Mangeron Str., no. 73
700050 Iasi
Romania


Paul Botez
“Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iasi
Department of Medical Bioengineering
Universitatii Str., no. 16
700115 Iasi
Romania


Dănuţ Costin
“Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iasi
Department of Medical Bioengineering
Universitatii Str., no. 16
700115 Iasi
Romania


Lucian Eva
“Prof. Dr. Nicolae Oblu” Clinical Emergency Hospital
Neurosurgery Section
Ateneului Str., no. 2
700309 Iasi
Romania


Mihaela Holban
“Al.I.Cuza” University, Faculty of Chemistry
Department of Organic Chemistry
Carol I Blv., no. 11
700506, Iasi
Romania


Leonard Ignat
“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry
Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, no. 41A
700487 Iasi
Romania


Delia Iurea (Raţă)
“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection
Department of Natural and Synthetic Polymers
Prof. dr. docent Dimitrie Mangeron Str., no. 73
700050 Iasi
Romania


Anca N. Cadinoiu
“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection
Department of Natural and Synthetic Polymers
Prof. dr. docent Dimitrie Mangeron Str., no. 73
700050 Iasi
Romania


Maria-Andreea Lungan
“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection
Department of Natural and Synthetic Polymers
Prof. dr. docent Dimitrie Mangeron Str., no. 73
700050 Iasi
Romania


Gabriela Lupescu (Andrei)
“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection
Department of Natural and Synthetic Polymers
Prof. dr. docent Dimitrie Mangeron Str., no. 73
700050 Iasi
Romania


Raluca Munteanu
“Prof. Dr. Nicolae Oblu” Clinical Emergency Hospital
Neurosurgery Section
Ateneului Str., no. 2
700309 Iasi
Romania


Ioan I. Negulescu
Louisiana State University AgCenter
School of Human Ecology
Baton Rouge
LA , 70803
USA


Ovidiu Novac
“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection
Department of Physical Chemistry
Prof. dr. docent Dimitrie Mangeron Str., no. 73
700050 Iasi
Romania


Lacramioara Ochiuz
“Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iasi
Faculty of Pharmacy
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology
Universitatii Str., no. 16
700115 Iasi
Romania


Cătălina A. Peptu
“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection
Department of Natural and Synthetic Polymers
Prof. dr. docent Dimitrie Mangeron Str., no. 73
700050 Iasi
Romania


Cristian Peptu
“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry
Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, no. 41A
700487 Iasi
Romania


Marcel Popa
“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection
Department of Natural and Synthetic Polymers
Prof. dr. docent Dimitrie Mangeron Str., no. 73
700050 Iasi
Romania


Marcel I. Popa
“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection
Department of Physical Chemistry
Prof. dr. docent Dimitrie Mangeron Str., no. 73
700050 Iasi
Romania


Stefania Racovita
“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry
Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, no. 41A
700487 Iasi
Romania


Constantin V. Uglea
“Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iasi
Department of Medical Bioengineering
Universitatii Str., no. 16
700115 Iasi
Romania


Silvia Vasiliu
“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry
Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, no. 41A
700487 Iasi
Romania


Cristina D. Vlad
“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry
Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, no. 41A
700487 Iasi
Romania




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