Thyroid Cancer: A Clinical Overview and A Useful Laboratory Manual


by

Silvia Cantara

DOI: 10.2174/97816080574981130101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-749-8, 2013
ISBN: 978-1-60805-750-4

  
  




Thyroid nodules have a high prevalence in populations where iodine deficiency rates are high and in peop...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Foreword , Pp. i

Dario Giuffrida
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Preface , Pp. ii-iii (2)

Silvia Cantara
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List of Contributors , Pp. iv

Silvia Cantara
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Acknowledgements , Pp. v

Silvia Cantara
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Thyroid Nodules , Pp. 3-14 (12)

Furio Pacini and Tala J. H. Pablo
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Alternative Methods for the Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules , Pp. 15-24 (10)

Paolo E. Macchia
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Oncogenes Involved in Thyroid Cancer Development , Pp. 25-40 (16)

Silvia Cantara
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Methods for Oncogene Analysis in Thyroid FNAC , Pp. 41-63 (23)

Silvia Cantara
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Familial Non-Medullary Thyroid Cancer , Pp. 64-75 (12)

Stefania Marchisotta
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Thyroid Cancer of Parafollicular Origin: Medullary Carcinoma , Pp. 76-84 (9)

Maria G. Castagna
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Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor and Target Therapy , Pp. 85-95 (11)

Brilli Lucia
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Potential Markers for the Diagnosis of Thyroid Cancer , Pp. 96-111 (16)

Silvia Cantara
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Appendix , Pp. 112

Silvia Cantara
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Subject Index , Pp. 113-115 (3)

Silvia Cantara
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Foreword

Thyroid Cancer: A Clinical Overview and a Useful Laboratory Manual is a comprehensive eBook dealing with all aspects of thyroid cancer including the biology and the pathogenesis of thyroid nodule. Silvia Cantara, the editor, has integrated in this eBook, different aspects to consider different facets of thyroid cancer. There are chapters dealing with relevant basic science including the oncogenes involved in thyroid cancer development and the new markers useful in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

Thyroid nodules are frequent in the general population, especially in those countries with iodine deficiency. Thyroid tumors have a relatively high incidence. Thyroid tumors are an ideal model for the study of tumorigenesis in epithelial tissues.

Each chapter covers its topic in a didactic and understandable manner, also for the reader without expertise in that field.

Each chapter includes an up-to-date review of the literature, and in all chapters there are extensive citations. This eBook, not only underlined the aspect of the diagnostic procedures for thyroid nodule, but also the relevant role of oncogenes in the diagnosis and treatment, including the target therapy by tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

This eBook can be used as a practical, clinically-oriented text and as a reference. It will be of interest to use to a wide variety of physicians that treat and see patients with thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer.

Dario Giuffrida
Chief, Division of Oncology
Mediterranean Institute of Oncology
Viagrande, CT
Professor of Clinical Oncology
University of Catania
Italy


Preface

Thyroid nodules are very frequent in the general population especially in those countries with iodide deficiency. The majority of thyroid nodules are benign and approximately 5% of thyroid nodules are cancer. In this view, it is very important the pre-surgical diagnosis to distinguish benign from malignant lesions in order to limit surgical treatment only to the malignant/suspicious nodules. Nowadays, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is the “gold standard” for the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. In general, in expert hands, it is associated with good specificity and acceptable sensitivity. However, this procedure has some limitations related to inadequate sampling or to the difficulty to discriminate follicular lesions. Therefore, a significant proportion of patients who do not have malignant lesions are submitted to unnecessary thyroidectomy. The discovery of genetic alterations specific for differentiated thyroid cancer may provide molecular markers to be searched for in the material obtained by FNA, thus increasing the diagnostic accuracy of traditional cytology.

Overall, this eBook describes the problems of FNAC limitations; previous experience on oncogenes search; laboratory limitations; new molecular techniques to refine diagnosis and the prognostic significance of each genetic alteration providing a critical and useful manual (together with a laboratory handbook) essential for students, young endocrinologist, family doctors but also for biologists and technicians involved in the pre-surgical diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

In chapter 1, the author has introduces the matter of thyroid nodules, their incidence in the general population, the percentage of malignant thyroid nodules and the benign lesions. Chapters 2-3 are dedicated to the methods for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Professor Pacini (author of chapter 2) is an internationally recognized authority in the field of thyroid cancer and thyroide diseases in general. His research has contributed to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer and he has been deeply involved in the study of the thyroid effects of the post-Cherbobyl radioactive fall-out. He contributed to this eBook with a well designed review on FNAC.

In chapters 4-5 oncogenes involved in thyroid tumorigenesis and methods for the routinary molecular analysis of these oncogenes in a thyroid aspirate, are described. The author is a post-doctoral researcher which contributed with Professor Pacini to one of the major internationally recognised paper on this subject.

Chapters 6-8 are dedicated to the problem of familial thyroid cancer, medullary thyroid cancer and the new approaches of the target theraphy for refractory cancers.

In the last chapter, possible new markers to be introduced in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer (i.e. telomerase, miRNA) are described with particular accent on their importance, specificity for thyroid cancer and problems related to their evaluation (i.e. can they be measured in blood or FNAC?; is their measurement easy to perform or time consuming?).

We would like to thank Bentham Science Publishers for their support and efforts.

Silvia Cantara
Section of Endocrinology & Metabolism
Department of Internal Medicine
Endocrinology & Metabolism and Biochemistry
University of Siena
Siena
Italy

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Silvia Cantara
University of Siena
Siena
Italy




Contributor(s):
Furio Pacini
Section of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine
Endocrinology & Metabolism and Biochemistry
University of Siena
Siena
Italy


Silvia Cantara
Section of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine
Endocrinology & Metabolism and Biochemistry
University of Siena
Siena
Italy


Maria G. Castagna
Section of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine
Endocrinology & Metabolism and Biochemistry
University of Siena
Siena
Italy


Paolo E. Macchia
Department of Endocrinology
Molecular Oncology and Clinic University of Napoles “Federico II”
Naples
Italy


Stefania Marchisotta
Section of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine
Endocrinology & Metabolism and Biochemistry
University of Siena
Siena
Italy


Tala J. H. Pablo
Clinica Alemana, Vitacura 5951, Las Condes
Santiago
Chile




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