Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research – Alzheimer Disorders

Volume 2

by

Atta-ur-Rahman

DOI: 10.2174/97816080587091140201
eISBN: 978-1-60805-870-9, 2014
ISBN: 978-1-60805-871-6
ISSN: 2214-5168 (Online)



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Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research - Alzheimer Disorders is an e-Book series concerned with Alzheime...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Preface

- Pp. i-ii (2)

Atta-ur-Rahman

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iii-iv (2)

Atta-ur-Rahman

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Mitochondrial and Golgi Apparatus’ Alterations in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Study of the Cerebellar Cortex Based on Silver Impregnation Technique and Electron Microscopy

- Pp. 3-27 (25)

Stavros J. Baloyannis

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Clinical Drug Research and Development on Alzheimer’s Disease

- Pp. 28-87 (60)

Hailiang Yan, Daniel H.S. Lee and Yan Zhang

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Methods of Estimating Hippocampal Volume Loss in Alzheimer’s Disease

- Pp. 88-102 (15)

Vikas Dhikav, Kuljeet Singh Anand, Mansi Sethi and Umesh Chander Garga

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Multifactorial Pathologies Promote Inflammation and Enhance vulnerability to Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease: Implications for Possible Therapeutic Targets

- Pp. 103-154 (52)

Mak Adam Daulatzai

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Environmental Impact on the Etiology of Alzheimer’s Disease: Mechanistic Insights from Oxidative Stress and Epigenetic Perspective

- Pp. 155-232 (78)

Barbara Benassi and Claudia Consales

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Subject Index

- Pp. 233-239 (7)

Atta-ur-Rahman

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Preface

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia which is defined as the loss of cognitive functioning and behavioral abilities. Like all types of dementia, Alzheimer's is caused by brain cell death. It is a neurodegenerative disease which leads to progressive brain cell death that occurs over a period of time. A variety of suspected causes are being investigated including factors in the environment, biochemical disturbances and immune processes.

At present there is no cure for Alzheimer's disease but there is a worldwide attempt under way to find better modes to treat the disease, to delay its onset, and to prevent it from developing. The book series, “Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research – Alzheimer Disorders”, is intended to present the most notable developments in the field in the form of cutting edge reviews written by leading experts.

Volume 2 of this eBook series is a compilation of five well written chapters contributed by some of the most prominent researchers in the field. It contains new therapeutic strategies, clinical drug research and development, evolving techniques of volumetric measurement of the hippocampus, and implications for possible therapeutic targets and environmental impact on the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease.

Baloyannis in Chapter 1 describes the ultrastructural modifications of the cerebellar cortex in the early onset of AD and focuses the study especially on mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, dendritic branches, dendritic spines and synapses in the cerebellar hemispheres and the vermis. The review concludes that on the basis of the mitochondrial and Golgi complex pathology, new therapeutic strategies protecting those organelles might be planned for the treatment of AD, particularly at its early stages.

Chapter 2 by Zhang et al. reviews the major pathological features and hypotheses in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Moreover, the current available drugs and their applications are described in this review. The potential drugs in clinical trials and under advanced stages of development are also introduced.

Volumetric measurement of the hippocampus is currently an emerging area for a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. The volumetric analysis of the hippocampus in Alzheimer’s disease plays an important role in pathophysiology of this neurological disorder. Dhikav et al. in Chapter 3 introduce methods for estimating the hippocampal volume loss in Alzheimer’s disease.

Daulatzai in Chapter 4 comprehensively describes the synergistic pathophysiological factors that may underlie the onset and progression of cognitive dysfunction. This review provides details of the multifactorial pathologies that promote inflammation and enhance vulnerability to Late-Onset Alzheimer’s disease. Possible therapeutic targets are also discussed.

Epigenetic mechanisms are involved in learning and memory. Most of the biological pathways dysregulated in AD are controlled through epigenetic modifications. The environmental impact on the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease is extensively reviewed by Benassi and Consales. This review explains that the role of neuroepigenetics in classifying new aspects and novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

This second volume of the book series represents the results of a considerable amount of work by many eminent contributors. I wish to thank them all for their excellent contributions and their commitment to complete the writing assignments in time. I also wish to thank the excellent team of Bentham Science Publishers, especially Ms. Fariya Zulfiqar, led by Mr. Mahmood Alam, Director Bentham Science Publishers, who deserve all appreciation.

Atta-ur-Rahman
Honorary Life Fellow
Kings College
University of Cambridge
UK

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Prof. Dr. Atta-ur-Rahman
University of Cambridge
Cambridge
UK




Contributor(s):
Benassi Barbara
Unit of Radiation Biology and Human Health
Italian National Agency for new Technologies
Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA) Casaccia
Rome 00123
Italy


Consales Claudia
Unit of Radiation Biology and Human Health
Italian National Agency for new Technologies
Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA) Casaccia
Rome 00123
Italy


Daniel HS Lee
Department of Anatomy
Faculty of Medicine
University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong


Hailiang Yan
State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology
College of Life Sciences
Peking University
Beijing, 100871
China


Kuljeet Singh Anand
Memory Clinic
Department of Neurology
Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research (PGIMER) & Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital
New Delhi, 110001
India


Mak Adam Daulatzai
Sleep Disorders Group
EEE/MSE
The University of Melbourne
Grattan Street
Parkville
Victoria 3009
Melbourne
Australia


Mansi Sethi
Memory Clinic
Department of Neurology
Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research (PGIMER) & Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital
New Delhi, 110001
India


Stavros J. Baloyannis
Aristotelian University, Thessaloniki
Greece and Research Institute for Alzheimer’s disease
Postgraduate Institute of Medical
Langada
Iraklion
Greece


Umesh Chander Garga
Department of Radiology
Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research (PGIMER)



Vikas Dhikav
Memory Clinic
Department of Neurology
Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research (PGIMER) & Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital
New Delhi, 110001
India
/
International School of Medicine
International University of Kyrgyzstan (ISM-IUK)
Bishkek
Kyrgyzstan


Yan Zhang
State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology
College of Life Sciences
Peking University
Beijing, 100871
China




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