Ricin Toxin


by

John W. Cherwonogrodzky

DOI: 10.2174/97816080587851140101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-878-5, 2014
ISBN: 978-1-60805-879-2



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`Ricin Toxin’ brings together a collection of in depth and cutting edge reviews that focus on the current understanding of ricin toxin...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Editor’s Biography

- Pp. i

John W. Cherwonogrodzky

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Foreword

- Pp. ii

Damien C. Chong

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Preface

- Pp. iii-iv (2)

John W. Cherwonogrodzky

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List of Contributors

- Pp. v-viii (4)

John W. Cherwonogrodzky

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Ricin - From Pharaohs to Bioterrorists and Beyond

- Pp. 3-37 (35)

Martha L. Hale

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Current Technologies for the Detection of Ricin in Different Matrices

- Pp. 38-56 (19)

Xiaohua He

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Ricin: Sorption by Soils, Minerals, Textiles, and Food; Soil Infiltration and Dust Transport

- Pp. 57-85 (29)

Richard E. Zartman and William F. Jaynes

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Risk of Ricin from Commercial Castor Production in North America

- Pp. 86-97 (12)

Dick L. Auld, Calvin L. Trostle, Travis D. Miller, Xiaohua He and Robert W. Duncan

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Generic Antibody Therapy, Polyclonal and Monoclonal, on Ricin Toxin Extracted from Several Cultivars of the Castor Plant (Ricinus Communis)

- Pp. 98-109 (12)

Rayanne Hilsen, Scott J. Jager and John W. Cherwonogrodzky

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Progress in the Development of Vaccines Against Ricin Intoxication

- Pp. 110-129 (20)

Virginia I. Roxas-Duncan and Leonard A. Smith

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Improving Anti-Ricin Antibodies: Chimerization and Selection of Ricin-Resistant Hybridoma Cell Lines

- Pp. 130-144 (15)

Seth H. Pincus, Clorinda Johnson, Grace Maresh and Kejing Song

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Anti-Ricin Protective Monoclonal Antibodies

- Pp. 145-158 (14)

Wei-Gang Hu, Junfei Yin, Damon Chau, Charles C. Hu and John W. Cherwonogrodzky

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Antibody Humanization by a Single Cycle of CDR-Grafting

- Pp. 159-181 (23)

Wei-Gang Hu, Junfei Yin, Damon Chau, Charles C. Hu and John W. Cherwonogrodzky

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Discovery of an Effective Ricin Antidote: An Old Drug for a New Use

- Pp. 182-196 (15)

Junfei Yin, Michael Fung and John W. Cherwonogrodzky

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A Ricin-Like Toxoid Used to Raise Goat Anti-Ricin Antibodies

- Pp. 197-207 (11)

Donald I.H. Stewart, Erik J. Wiersma, Vadim Tsvetnitsky, Thor Borgford, Curtis Braun, Dominik Stoll, Veronica Restelli, John W. Cherwonogrodzky, Laurel M. Negrych and Charles C. Hu

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Harnessing the Destructive Power of Ricin to Fight Human Cancer

- Pp. 208-237 (30)

Maddalena de Virgilio and Bernard Degryse

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Index

- Pp. 238-254 (17)

John W. Cherwonogrodzky

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Foreword

From pre-historic coated spear tips to a modified umbrella and beyond, ricin toxin from the castor plant has been used as a biological weapon by and against humans for millenia. It is a highly toxic, potentially-fatal threat not only to military but also civilian personnel, both through accidental exposure (e.g. ingestion) and terrorist-/state-sponsored intentional release. Ways to detect and treat toxin exposure are essential in protecting a population and form the basis of this book.

Here, Dr. John W. Cherwonogrodzky presents contributions of world experts to provide a text which covers the historic use of ricin, its detection and opportunities for intervention. This volume details recent advances in the development of various approaches to neutralise the toxin as well as highlighting further lines of investigation.

The reader is encouraged to broaden his/her understanding and appreciation for the ability of innovative researchers that have used the toxin to exploit our own cellular machinery to cause damage, and similarly, our ability to exploit the characteristics of ricin, to develop treatment strategies and even modify it to target cancer cells. Accordingly, the book serves as a good resource for toxin researchers, with a wider appeal to those studying cell and cancer biology, medicinal and protein chemistry and vaccine development. The book is informative without being overwhelming, provides a few key contributions to a few key topics, and will likely be worthwhile for reader to learn how far progress has reached against the toxin threat.

Damien C. Chong
Medical Countermeasures
Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO)
Victoria
Australia


Preface

This book focuses on the wide range of subjects needed to beat the biological threat of ricin, beginning with background information (Chapter 1) followed by toxin detection (Chapters 2, 3). “If you know your enemies, you will not be imperiled” (Sun Zi, 544-496 BC). This then leads to reducing the threat by creating cultivars that have greatly reduced amounts of toxin (Chapter 4) or generic antibody therapies that neutralize the toxin regardless of its cultivar source (Chapter 5). This in turn leads into not one but several breakthroughs in medical countermeasures against the toxin, be it vaccines (Chapter 6), antibodies (Chapters 7-9) or repurposing abandoned drugs to find an antidote (Chapter 10). The book ends on a positive note, developing antisera against the toxin without using the toxin but instead using a harmless genetically engineered toxoid (Chapter 11). It finishes with ricin’s past benefits as an anti-cancer drug (Chapter 12) so as not to lose sight of opportunities to “beat swords into ploughshares”.

All of the authors were selected for their expertise and fresh approaches to defeating the threat of ricin. This book is not intended to be a comprehensive textbook on the subject of ricin. Indeed, some topics may have to be addressed in another volume (e.g. regulations, emergency responses, forensics, histology and immunity). Regardless, the selected contributions show how innovative “out of the box” scientific-based thinking can shift the bio-threat advantage away from those who wish to intentionally cause harm. Novel methods and discoveries have advanced rapid toxin detection and identification, protection of first responders and military forces by vaccines, rescuing casualties by neutralizing antibodies or repurposed drugs, and possibly frustrating the terrorist should they prepare a useless extract from cultivars that no longer express the toxin. We do not have these measures in place yet, but the book does show how investments in research have paid off towards achieving these goals. With additional support for development and regulatory approvals of these discoveries, the ricin threat can be mitigated.

This book took longer to compile than anticipated. It would not have been possible to complete without the authors, and especially the staff at Bentham Science Publishers, giving their continuous support. Their patience, enthusiasm and encouragement were a greatly appreciated source of strength during its extended preparation. Perhaps of greater importance, than the book and its many contributions, were the remarkable people that formed a unique collaborative team to make it happen.

John W. Cherwonogrodzky
BioThreat Defence Section
Defence Research and Development Canada
(DRDC), Suffield Research Centre
Ralston, Alberta
Canada

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
John W. Cherwonogrodzky
(DRDC), Suffield Research Centre
Ralston, Alberta
California
Canada




Contributor(s):
Bernard Degryse
School of Health and Human Performance
Faculty of Science and Health, Dublin City University
Dublin 9
Ireland


Calvin L. Trostle
AgriLife Extension, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences
Texas A&M University, College Station
Texas
USA


Charles Chen Hu
Bio Threat Defence Section, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC)
Suffield Research Centre, Canadian Forces Base Suffield
Ralston
Alberta
Canada


Johnson Clorinda
Research Institute for Children
Children’s Hospital and LSU Health Sciences Center
New Orleans
Louisiana
USA


Braun Curtis
Systems management Consulting
Surrey
British Columbia
Canada


Chong Damien
Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO)
Fishermans Bend (City of Melbourne)
Victoria
Australia


Chau Damon
Bio Threat Defence Section, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC)
Suffield Research Centre, Canadian Forces Base Suffield
Ralston
Alberta
Canada


Dick L. Auld
Texas AgriLife Research, Plant and Soil Science
Texas Tech University
Lubbock
Texas
USA


Dominik Stoll
BC Cancer Agency’s Genome Sciences Centre
Vancouver
British Columbia
Canada


Stewart Donald IH
Professor, Department of Neurosciences and the Center on Aging
PlantForm Corporation
Toronto
Ontario
Canada


Erik J. Wiersma
Ministry of Health and Long-term Care
Ontario Government Pharmaceutical and Medical Supply
Charleston, Concord
Ontario
Canada


Grace Maresh
Research Institute for Children
Children’s Hospital and LSU Health Sciences Center
New Orleans
Louisiana
USA


John W. Cherwonogrodzky
Bio Threat Defence Section, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC)
Suffield Research Centre, Canadian Forces Base Suffield
Ralston
Alberta
Canada


Junfei Yin
Bio Threat Defence Section, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC)
Suffield Research Centre, Canadian Forces Base Suffield
Ralston
Alberta
Canada


Kejing Song
Research Institute for Children
Children’s Hospital and LSU Health Sciences Center
New Orleans
Louisiana
USA


Laurel M. Negrych
Bio Threat Defence Section, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC)
Suffield Research Centre, Canadian Forces Base Suffield
Ralston
Alberta
Canada


Leonard A. Smith
Medical Countermeasures Technology, Office of Chief Scientist
United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID)
Fort Detrick
Maryland
USA


Maddalena De Virgilio
National Council of Research
Institute of Biosciences and Bioresources (IBBR)
Bari
Italy


Martha L. Hale
Integrated Toxicology Division
United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID)
Fort Detrick
Maryland
USA


Michael Fung
Suffield Research Centre
Canadian Forces Base Suffield
Ralston
Alberta
Canada


Rayanne Hilsen
Risk and Hazards Assessment Group, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC)
Suffield Research Centre, Canadian Forces Base Suffield
Ralston
Alberta
Canada


Richard E. Zartman
Department of Plant and Soil Science, College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
Texas Tech University
Lubbock
Texas
USA


Robert W. Duncan
Department of Plant Science
University of Manitoba
Winnipeg
Manitoba
Canada


Scott J. Jager
Bio Threat Defence Section, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC)
Suffield Research Centre, Canadian Forces Base Suffield
Ralston
Alberta
Canada


Seth H. Pincus
Research Institute for Children
Children’s Hospital and LSU Health Sciences Center
New Orleans
Louisiana
USA


Thor Borgford
Faculty of Science and Technology
Douglas College
British Columbia
New Westminster
Canada


Travis D. Miller
AgriLife Extension, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences
Texas A&M University
College Station
Texas
USA


Vadim Tsvetnitsky
PATH
Washington
D.C.
USA


Veronica Restelli
CMPT, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
University of British Columbia
British Columbia
Canada


Virginia I. Roxas-Duncan
Biosurety Division
United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID)
Fort Detrick
Maryland
USA


Wei-Gang Hu
Bio Threat Defence Section, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC)
Suffield Research Centre, Canadian Forces Base Suffield
Ralston
Alberta
Canada


William F. Jaynes
Department of Plant and Soil Science
College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Texas Tech University
Lubbock
Texas
USA


Xiaohua He
Foodborne Contaminants Research Unit, Western Regional Research Center
Agricultural Research Services, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Albany
California
USA




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