Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research - HIV

Volume 1

by

Atta-ur-Rahman

DOI: 10.2174/97816080589691140101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-896-9, 2015
ISBN: 978-1-60805-897-6
ISSN: 2352-5916 (Online)



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Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research – HIV is an eBook series that brings update...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Preface

- Pp. i-ii (2)

Atta-ur-Rahman

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iii-iv (2)

Atta-ur-Rahman

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Antiretroviral Drugs: Current Therapy, Recent Developments and Future Perspectives

- Pp. 3-57 (55)

Matthew Phillips and Jenny Svärd

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New Developments for Anti-HIV Treatment

- Pp. 58-66 (9)

Liã Bárbara Arruda and Jorge Casseb

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Drugs Targeting the -1 Ribosomal Frameshifting that Generates the Enzymes of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus

- Pp. 67-82 (16)

Léa Brakier-Gingras, Johanie Charbonneau and Benjamin L. Miller

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Sensing of SNP in HIV-1 Genome Using Fluorescent Oligonucleotide Probes

- Pp. 83-122 (40)

Kira Astakhova

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Next Generation Anti-HIV Agent 4’-Ethynylstavudine: From the Bench to the Clinic

- Pp. 123-184 (62)

Kazuhiro Haraguchi, Shingo Takeda, Yutaka Kubota, Hiroki Kumamoto, Hiromichi Tanaka, Takayuki Hamasaki, Masanori Baba, Elijah Paintsil, Yung-Chi Cheng and Yasuo Urata

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HIV Integrase - Biology and Inhibitor Design

- Pp. 185-265 (81)

Victoria Hann and Mark Ashton

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Nephrotoxicity Associated with HAART

- Pp. 266-286 (21)

Siddhartha Yedla, Parikshit T. Hameer and Naheed Ansari

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Subject Index

- Pp. 287-292 (6)

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Preface

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is responsible for AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), due to which the immune system of the body is badly affected and natural defense mechanisms become compromised. This opens the way for many infectious diseases to attack simultaneously. The treatment of HIV has been directed to decrease mortality and increase the number of clinically secured patients. Volume 1 of the book series "Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research - HIV" presents important recent developments in the form of cutting edge reviews written by eminent professionals.

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) uses multiple drugs that can act on special viral targets which in turn maintain the functions of the immune system. Chapter 1 by Phillips and Svard summarizes the current status in terms of development of drugs to target various stages of the disease and to refine the use of current drugs.

Viral suppression reduces the function and replication of a virus. It also decreases the amount of virus in the blood. Successful antiretroviral therapy is being used for sustained HIV viral suppression and immunological recuperation in HIV infected patients. Casseb and Arruda in Chapter 2 discuss the advances in the field of antiretroviral agents (ART) that focus on two main types of inhibitors, integrase inhibitors and entry inhibitors.

In the next chapter Brakier-Gingras et al. review the characteristics of the mechanism accounting for HIV-1 frameshifting. They present the different approaches investigated to develop novel anti- HIV-1 drugs interfering with the frameshift, including the high-throughput screening of libraries of chemical compounds with a bicistronic reporter, the use of antisense oligonucleotides binding to the frameshift stimulatory signal, and the selection and modification of chemical compounds that bind to the frameshift stimulatory signal.

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) is a genetic variation in human genome that causes resistance to drugs applied for the management of HIV/AIDS. Astakhova in Chapter 4 comprehensively describes the approaches of current SNP sensing in HIV-1 cDNA and RNA. In addition, several promising technologies that are being used for the diagnosis of HIV are also highlighted in this review.

The nucleosides having unusual branched sugars are known to work as potential antiviral agents. Haraguchi et al. in Chapter 5 describe the new synthetic methods for the synthesis of 1' and 4'- branched-sugar nucleosides. This review also addresses the anti-viral activities, pharmacology and clinical developments (Phase I and Phase IIa) of 4'-ethynylstavudine (4'-Ed4T) that has more potent anti-HIV activity than the parent compound stavudine (d4T).

HIV-integrase is an attractive target for the development of new anti-HIV drugs and has potent antiviral activity. The advancement in effective inhibitors of HIV replication has established the prospective efficiency of antiviral treatment for the cure of AIDS. Ashton and Hann in Chapter 6 have reviewed in detail the recent developments targeting HIV integrase.

HAART is an aggressive treatment used to restrain HIV viral replication and the progression of HIV disease. Ansari et al. in Chapter 7 describe the potential adverse effects of HAART on kidney.

This first volume of the book series represents the results of a considerable amount of work by eminent contributors. I am grateful for their excellent contributions. I also wish to thank the excellent team of Bentham Science Publishers, especially Ms. Fariya Zulfiqar, led by Mr. Mahmood Alam, Director Bentham Science Publishers, who deserve our appreciation.

Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS
Kings College
University of Cambridge
Cambridge
UK

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Atta-ur-Rahman
Kings College
University of Cambridge
Cambridge
UK




Contributor(s):
Benjamin L. Miller
Departement of Biochemistry and Biophysics, and Dermatology,
University of Rochester
Rochester
New York, 14642
USA


Elijah Paintsil
Department of Pediatrics
School of Medicine, Yale University
New Haven
CT 06520
USA


Hiroki Kumamoto
School of Pharmacy
Showa University
Tokyo 142-8555
Japan


Hiromichi Tanaka
School of Pharmacy
Showa University
Tokyo 142-8555
Japan


Jenny Svärd
Department of Medicine Huddinge
Karolinska Institutet
Unit of Infectious Diseases
Stockholm
Sweden


Johanie Charbonneau
Department of Biochemistry
University of Montreal
Montreal
Quebec
Canada H3T 1J4


Jorge Casseb
Department of Dermatology School of Medicine at University of Sao Paulo
Laboratory of Investigation in Dermatology and Immunodeficiencies – LIM56
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Kazuhiro Haraguchi
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Nihon Pharmaceutical University
Saitama 362-0806
Japan


Kira Astakhova
Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy
Nucleic Acid Center
Campusvej 55
5230 Odense M
Denmark


Léa Brakier-Gingras
Department of Biochemistry
University of Montreal
Montreal
Quebec
Canada H3T 1J4


Liã Bárbara Arruda
Institute of Tropical Medicine of Sao Paulo
University of Sao Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Mark Ashton
Department of Pharmacy, Health and Wellbeing
University of Sunderland
Sunderland
Tyne and Wear
UK


Masanori Baba
Division of Antiviral Chemotherapy, Center for Chronic Viral Diseases
Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences
Kagoshima University
Kagoshima 890-8544
Japan


Matthew Phillips
Department of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare
Royal Bolton Hospital
Bolton
UK


Naheed Ansari
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Jacobi Medical Center
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Bronx New York 10461
USA


Parikshit T. Hameer
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Jacobi Medical Center
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Bronx New York 10461
USA


Shingo Takeda
School of Pharmacy
Showa University
Tokyo 142-8555
Japan


Siddhartha Yedla
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Jacobi Medical Center
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Bronx New York 10461
USA


Takayuki Hamasaki
Division of Antiviral Chemotherapy, Center for Chronic Viral Diseases
Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences
Kagoshima University
Kagoshima 890-8544
Japan


Victoria Hann
Department of Pharmacy, Health and Wellbeing
University of Sunderland
Sunderland
Tyne and Wear
UK


Yasuo Urata6
Oncolys BioPharma Inc.
4-1-28 Toranomon, Minato-ku
Tokyo 105-0001
Japan


Yung-Chi Cheng
Department of Pharmacology
School of Medicine, Yale University
New Haven
CT 06520
USA


Yutaka Kubota
School of Pharmacy
Showa University
Tokyo 142-8555
Japan




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