Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research -CNS and Neurological Disorders

Volume 3

by

Atta-ur-Rahman

DOI: 10.2174/97816080592631140301
eISBN: 978-1-60805-926-3, 2015
ISBN: 978-1-60805-927-0
ISSN: 2451-8883 (Print)
ISSN: 2214-7527 (Online)



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Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research - CNS and Neurological Disorders is an eBook series that brings updated reviews t...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Preface

- Pp. i-ii (2)

Atta-ur-Rahman

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iii-iv (2)

Atta-ur-Rahman

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ATP-Sensitive K<sup>+</sup> Channel in Nigra Dopamine Neurons is a Novel Target for Tetrahydroprotoberberines` Neuroprotection

- Pp. 3-18 (16)

Kechun Yang, Devin H. Taylor and Jie Wu

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Potential Roles of Cannabinoids in Cell Therapy for CNS Neurodegenerative Disorders

- Pp. 19-40 (22)

Massimo Nabissi, Maria Beatrice Morelli, Consuelo Amantini, Sonia Liberati, Valerio Napolioni, Matteo Santoni, Valerio Farfariello, Claudio Cardinali and Giorgio Santoni

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AMPA Receptor Antagonists for the Treatment of CNS Disorders: Antiepileptics and Beyond

- Pp. 41-76 (36)

Takahisa Hanada, Haichen Yang, Katsutoshi Ido and Antonio Laurenza

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Towards A Therapeutic Intervention in Polyglutamine Ataxias: From Models to Clinical Trials

- Pp. 77-130 (54)

Nadiya Kazachkova and Manuela Lima

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Dietary Therapy in Pediatric Neurology Practice

- Pp. 131-157 (27)

Sheffali Gulati and Biswaroop Chakrabarty

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Nutritional and Genotoxic Stress Contributes to Diabetes and Neurodegenerative Diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's Diseases

- Pp. 158-192 (35)

Ian James Martins

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Subject Index

- Pp. 193-198 (6)

Atta-ur-Rahman

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Preface

Neurological disorders are the most common age-related multifactorial set of diseases which deal with the structural, chemical or electrical abnormalities in the nervous system. With the progression and development of these disorders, neurodegeneration prolongs in the brain, aggravating the symptoms. It also has social impacts as it affects both the patients and their families. Several specialists of neurology and clinical neuropsychology are aiming at preventing and curing these disorders through various therapeutic strategies.

The book series “Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research – CNS and Neurological Disorders”, is intended to deliver the most noteworthy developments in the field in the form of cutting edge reviews written by professionals. The current volume 3 of this book series is a collection of well written chapters contributed by some of the most prominent researchers in the field. It includes new therapeutic strategies and evidence-based cure and prevention for CNS disorders.

Tetrahydroprotoberberines (THPBs) belong to a new class of DA antagonists that have attracted much attention in biochemical and neuropharmacological studies. This group of compounds may have a neuroprotective role by modulation of dopamine (DA) associated diseases as it targets DA receptors in both the nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic (DAergic) pathways. Yang et al., in Chapter 1 broadly describe the key role of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels of substantia nigra compacta DA neurons as a novel target for Tetrahydroprotoberberines’ neuroprotection. The recent new findings indicate that targeting at ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels in SNc DA neurons may present a novel mechanism underlying THPBs’ neuroprotective effects

Cannabinoids are a group of chemical compounds that target cannabinoid receptors on cells that are responsible to suppress the release of neurotransmitter and were found to modulate neuronal functions including neurogenesis. Chapter 2 by Nabissi et al. highlight the role of CB receptors and CB related receptors to regulate neural stem cells (NSCs) differentiation. This review also discusses the potential stem cell-based therapeutic strategy of cannabinoids and related receptors for CNS neurodegenerative disorders.

α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptors are known to mediate fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). Disruption of this activity has been found in the pathophysiology of a variety of CNS disorders. Hanada et al., in Chapter 3 use the first approved antiepileptic drug, perampanel, as an example of an effective strategy to target AMPA receptors.

PolyQ spinocerebellar ataxias are rare neurodegenerative disorders that involve cerebellar degeneration and dysfunction. Kazachkova and Lima in Chapter 4 comprehensively discuss the common pathological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of polyQ ataxias. This review also summarizes the potential benefits of various pharmacological agents that have been pre-clinically studied.

Studies have shown that ketogenic diet is an effective therapy for childhood intractable epilepsy and that it leads to 30-40% reduction in seizure frequency. The role of modified Atkins diet and Low Glycemic Index treatment is reviewed in Chapter 5 by Gulati and Chakrabarty. This chapter also summarizes certain side effects associated with this dietary therapy. investigations regarding dietary therapy may have an impact in other neurological conditions such as migraine, brain tumour and autism.

Diabetes is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction or dementia, especially in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). It also involves multiple organ dysfunction affecting many organs including the eyes, liver, kidney and heart. The comprehensive chapter 6 by Ian James Martins discusses the importance of anti-aging therapies, including diet, exercise and selective drug therapy that may prevent calorie surplus and activation of calorie sensitive genes Sirtuin 1 (Sirt 1), which in turn can avert aging, PD and AD.

The 3rd volume of the book series represents the results of a significant amount of work by eminent researchers in the field. I wish to thank the excellent team of Bentham Science Publishers, especially Mr. Shehzad Naqvi (Senior Manager Publication), led by Mr. Mahmood Alam (Director Publications), who deserve all appreciation.

Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS
Kings College
University of Cambridge
Cambridge
UK

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Atta-ur-Rahman FRS
Kings College, University of Cambridge
Honorary Life Fellow
Cambridge
UK




Contributor(s):
Antonio Laurenza
Clinical Development
Neuroscience & General Medicine Product Creation Unit, Eisai Inc., Woodcliff Lake
New Jersey
USA


Biswaroop Chakrabarty
Child Neurology Division, Department of Pediatrics
All India Institute of Medical Sciences
New Delhi
India


Claudio Cardinali
Department of Molecular Medicine
Sapienza University
Rome
Italy


Consuelo Amantini
School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine
University of Camerino
Camerino
Italy


Devin H. Taylor
Division of Neurology, Barrow Neurological Institute
St. Joseph’s Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix
Luzhou Medical College
Arizona, 85013
USA


Giorgio Santoni
School of Pharmacy, Section of Experimental Medicine
University of Camerino
Camerino
Italy


Haichen Yang
Clinical Development
Neuroscience & General Medicine Product Creation Unit, Eisai Inc., Woodcliff Lake
New Jersey
USA


Ian James Martins
Centre of Excellence in Alzheimer’s Disease Research and Care
School of Medical Sciences, Edith Cowan University
270 Joondalup Drive
Joondalup, 6027
Australia
/
School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
The University of Western Australia
Nedlands, 6009 and McCusker Alzheimer's Research Foundation
Hollywood Medical Centre, 85 Monash Avenue, Suite 22
Nedlands, 6009
Australia


Jie Wu
Division of Neurology, Barrow Neurological Institute
St. Joseph’s Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix
Luzhou Medical College
Arizona, 85013
USA


Katsutoshi Ido
Global Biopharmacology, Neuroscience & General Medicine Product Creation Unit
Eisai Co. Ltd, Tsukuba
Ibaraki
Japan


Kechun Yang
Department of Neuroscience
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia
PA, 19104
USA


Manuela Lima
Centre of Research in Natural Resources (CIRN), Department of Biology
University of the Azores
Ponta Delgada
Portugal
/
Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde (Institute for Research and Innovation in Health)
University of Porto
Portugal
/
Portugal and Institute for Molecular and Cell Biology (IBMC)
University of Porto
Porto
Portugal


Maria Beatrice Morelli
Department of Molecular Medicine
Sapienza University
Rome
Italy


Massimo Nabissi
School of Pharmacy, Section of Experimental Medicine
University of Camerino
Camerino
Italy


Matteo Santoni
Medical Oncology, AOU Ospedali Riuniti
Polytechnic University of the Marche Region
Ancona
Italy


Nadiya Kazachkova
Centre of Research in Natural Resources (CIRN), Department of Biology
University of the Azores
Ponta Delgada
Portugal
/
Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde (Institute for Research and Innovation in Health),
University of Porto
Porto

/
Portugal and Institute for Molecular and Cell Biology (IBMC)
University of Porto
Porto
Portugal


Sheffali Gulati
Child Neurology Division, Department of Pediatrics
All India Institute of Medical Sciences
New Delhi
India


Sonia Liberati
School of Pharmacy, Section of Experimental Medicine
University of Camerino
Camerino
Italy


Takahisa Hanada
Global Biopharmacology, Neuroscience & General Medicine Product Creation Unit
Eisai Co. Ltd, Tsukuba
Ibaraki
Japan


Valerio Farfariello
Istituto Pasteur - Fondazione Cenci-Bolognetti
Roma
Italy


Valerio Napolioni
Department of Experimental Medicine
University of Perugia
Perugia
Italy




Reviews

“ …This is undeniably a timely book. …Each chapter covers an extensive, critically evaluated body of work… …in a very compelling way.” - Zareen A., (2015), Activitas Nervosa Superior, 57, No. 3-4, Page 120, Neuroscientia and NC Publishing.

http://activitas.org/index.php/nervosa/article/view/201/221

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