Advances in Cancer Drug Targets

Volume 2

by

Atta-ur-Rahman

DOI: 10.2174/97816080593861140201
eISBN: 978-1-60805-938-6, 2014
ISBN: 978-1-60805-939-3
ISSN: 2213-9915 (Online)



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Advances in Cancer Drug Targets is an e-book series that brings together recent expert reviews published on the subject with a focus o...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Preface

- Pp. i-iii (3)

Atta-ur-Rahman

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iv-vi (3)

Atta-ur-Rahman

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Heat Shock Protein 90 - A Potential Target in the Treatment of Human Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

- Pp. 3-53 (51)

H. Reikvam, R.B. Forthun, A. Brenner, E. Ersvær, K.J. Hatfield and Ø. Bruserud

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Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC): More New Targets for Anti-Cancer Drug Therapies

- Pp. 54-79 (26)

Maria Kapanidou and Victor M. Bolanos-Garcia

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ErbB Receptors as a Therapeutic Target in Metastatic Cancer Disease

- Pp. 80-126 (47)

Adriano Angelucci

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Anti-Tumour Effects of Bisphosphonates - What have we Learned from In Vivo Models?

- Pp. 127-174 (48)

Hannah K. Brown and Ingunn Holen

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Bleomycin and its Role in Inducing Apoptosis and Senescence in Alveolar Epithelial Lung Cells - Modulating Effects of Caveolin-1: An Update

- Pp. 175-211 (37)

Michael Kasper and Kathrin Barth

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Biomarkers for Risk Assessment and Prevention of Breast Cancer

- Pp. 212-273 (62)

Massimiliano Cazzaniga, Andrea Decensi, Bernardo Bonanni, Alberto Luini and Oreste Gentilini

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Modulation of the Myostatin/Follistatin Axis by Deacetylase Inhibitors: Improvement of TNFα-Induced Myotube Atrophy But Not of Experimental Cancer Cachexia

- Pp. 274-295 (22)

Andrea Bonetto, Fabio Penna, Gabriella Bonelli, Francesco M. Baccino and Paola Costelli

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Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase, An Emerging Target for Anti- Cancer Therapy

- Pp. 296-327 (32)

Xiangdong Liu, Robert C. Newton, Steven M. Friedman and Peggy A. Scherle

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p53 Plays a Key Role in Exporting Bid from the Nucleus to Induce Cell Death in Response to Etoposide Treatment

- Pp. 328-346 (19)

George G. Chen, Gang Song, Baoguang Hu, Liping Liu and Paul B.S. Lai

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Fibrates Action in Daunorubicin Chemical Reaction

- Pp. 347-357 (11)

Ganesaratnam K. Balendiran

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Index

- Pp. 358-377 (20)

Atta-ur-Rahman

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Preface

As the discovery and classification of novel human drug targets for anti-cancer drugs continue to grow, the eBook Series “Advances in Cancer Drug Targets” has become essential for all pharmaceutical scientists. This eBook series is a compilation of recent expert reviews published in Current Cancer Drug Targets on the subject with a focus on novel strategies. The current volume covers reviews on contemporary molecular drug targets involved in cancer, including medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, molecular biology, genomics and biochemistry.

The 'cancer chaperone’ heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) plays a crucial role in maintaining the stability and activity of numerous signaling proteins. In chapter 01, Bruserud et al. explain the role of Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) as a potential target in the treatment of Acute Myelogenous Leukaemia (AML). The HSP90 inhibition targets several intracellular signalling pathways, leading to the degradation of client proteins and hence exhibits multiple antileukaemic effects. This has been comprehensively reviewed.

The mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a vital regulatory system of the eukaryotic cell cycle. Mutations in Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC) lead to a condition that is associated with various types of cancers. Kapanidou & Bolanos-Garcia in chapter 02 explain the organization, structure and function of SAC components as this molecular understanding is essential to identify and evaluate new targets and novel strategies for the treatment of cancer.

Excessive ErbB signaling is associated with the development of a diverse range of solid tumours. The involvement of the ErbB receptor tyrosine kinases in human cancer has motivated the interest in this receptor family. In chapter 03, Angelucci explains the role of ErbB receptors as a potential therapeutic target in metastasis. This review summarises the recent molecular evidence and the outcome of clinical examinations to demonstrate the potential of ErbB family members.

At least 25% of patients with breast cancer develop skeletal metastases, with bone cancer resulting in the greatest morbidity. Bisphosphonates are the treatment of choice in tumour-induced hypercalcaemia, and they can lessen bone tenderness and skeletal complications. Chapter 04 by Brown & Holen summarizes anti-tumour effects of bisphosphonates reported from in vivo models, alone and in combination with other anti-cancer agents.

Caveolin-1 (cav-1) is a major structural component of caveolae and it affects diverse signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration and growth. Kasper & Barth in chapter 05 elaborate on the role of Bleomycin in inducing apoptosis and senescence in Alveolar Epithelial Lung Cells. This review highlights the issue that bleomycin-induced injury of lung cells is accompanied by altered expression levels of caveolin-1.

Chapter 06 by Cazzaniga et al. summarizes the vast array of molecules involved in carcinogenesis and the role of candidate biomarkers in risk assessment and prevention of breast cancer.

Costelli et al. in chapter 07 discuss the efficacy of two histone deacetaylase inhibitors, valproic acid and trichostatin A in preventing muscle atrophy associated with certain cancers.

Indoleamine-2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunosuppressive enzyme and its expression is evident in tumours. Chapter 08 by Liu et al.explains the role of IDO as a mediator of peripheral immune tolerance, and the potential of inhibition of IDO serves as a novel anti-cancer therapy.

Association of p53 with Bid induces cell death in response to etoposide treatment. Chen et al.in chapter 09 discuss a novel mechanism of facilitation of Bid nuclear export by p53 and their interaction in the nucleus and the mitochondria to induce apoptosis in response to etoposide-induced DNA damage.

Daunorubicin belongs to the group of chemotherapy drugs known as anthracycline antibiotics and is a toxic analogue of anthracycline which is reduced to daunorubicinol (less toxic) by the action of AKR1B10. It was discovered that the enzyme AKR1B10 is overexpressed in some types of cancer. Balendiran in chapter 10 presents the chemical mechanism of action of daunorubicin and proposes a method to advance the effectiveness of daunorubicin by modulating the catalytic activity of AKR1B10.

I hope the current volume will provide insights into the development of new approaches to anti-cancer therapy for interested researchers and pharmaceutical scientists. I greatly appreciate the assistance from the editorial staff, particularly Mr. Mahmood Alam (Director Publication) and Mr. Shehzad Naqvi (Senior Manager) for their hard work and determined efforts.

Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS
Honorary Life Fellow
Kings College
University of Cambridge
UK

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
FRS Atta-ur-Rahman
Kings College, University of Cambridge
Honorary Life Fellow
Cambridge
UK




Contributor(s):
A. Brenner
Department of Clinical Science
University of Bergen
Bergen
Norway


Adriano Angelucci
Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences
University of L’Aquila
L’Aquila
Italy


Alberto Luini
Division of Breast Surgery
European Institute of Oncology
Milan
Italy


Andrea Bonetto
Department of Surgery
Indiana University School of Medicine
Indianapolis
IUPUI, IN
USA


Andrea Decensi
Medical Oncology
E.O. Ospedali Galliera
Genoa
Italy


Baoguang Hu
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine
The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
China
/
Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery
The Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical University
Binzhou, Shandong
China


Bernardo Bonanni
Division of Cancer Prevention and Genetics
European Institute of Oncology
Milan
Italy


E. Ersvær
Department of Clinical Science
University of Bergen
Bergen
Norway


Fabio Penna
Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences
University of Turin
Italy
/
Interuniversitary Institute of Myology
Italy


Francesco M. Baccino
Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences
University of Turin
Italy


Gabriella Bonelli
Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences
University of Turin
Italy


Ganesaratnam K. Balendiran
Department of Chemistry
Youngstown State University
One University Plaza
Youngstown
OH, 44555
USA


Gang Song
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine
The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
China
/
Cancer Research Center
Medical College of Xiamen University
Xiamen
People's Republic of China


George G. Chen
Department of Surgery
Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
China


H. Reikvam
Department of Clinical Science
University of Bergen
Bergen
Norway
/
Department of Medicine
Haukeland University Hospital
Bergen
Norway


Hannah K. Brown
Academic Unit of Clinical Oncology
University of Sheffield
Sheffield
UK


Ingunn Holen
Academic Unit of Clinical Oncology
University of Sheffield
Sheffield
UK


K.J. Hatfield
Department of Clinical Science
University of Bergen
Bergen
Norway


Kathrin Barth
Institute of Anatomy, Medical Faculty “Carl Gustav Carus”
Technische Universität Dresden
01307 Dresden
Germany


Liping Liu
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine
The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
China
/
Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreas Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery
The Second Clinical Medical College of Jinan University (Shenzhen People's Hospital)
Shenzhen
Guangdong Province
China


Maria Kapanidou
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Department of Biological and Medical Sciences; Oxford Brookes University
Oxford
England, OX3 0BP, UK


Massimiliano Cazzaniga
Division of Cancer Prevention and Genetics
European Institute of Oncology
Milan
Italy


Michael Kasper
Institute of Anatomy, Medical Faculty “Carl Gustav Carus”
Technische Universität Dresden
Dresden, 01307
Germany


Ø. Bruserud
Department of Clinical Science
University of Bergen
Bergen
Norway
/
Department of Medicine
Haukeland University Hospital
Bergen
Norway


Oreste Gentilini
Division of Breast Surgery
European Institute of Oncology
Milan
Italy


Paola Costelli
Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences
University of Turin
Italy
/
Interuniversitary Institute of Myology
Italy


Paul B.S. Lai
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine
The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
China


Peggy A. Scherle
Incyte Corporation
Wilmington
DE, 19880
USA


R.B. Forthun
Department of Clinical Science
University of Bergen
Bergen
Norway


Robert C. Newton
Incyte Corporation
Wilmington
DE, 19880
USA


Steven M. Friedman
Incyte Corporation
Wilmington
DE, 19880
USA


Victor M. Bolanos-Garcia
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Department of Biological and Medical Sciences; Oxford Brookes University
Oxford
England, OX3 0BP, UK


Xiangdong Liu
Incyte Corporation
Wilmington
DE, 19880
USA




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