Immune Response to Parasitic Infections: Immunity to Helminths and Novel Therapeutic Approaches

Volume 2

by

Emilio Jirillo, Thea Magrone, Giuseppe Miragliotta

DOI: 10.2174/97816080598501140201
eISBN: 978-1-60805-985-0, 2014
ISBN: 978-1-60805-989-8
ISSN: 1879-744X (Online)



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This volume covers research on the interaction of major helminth parasites with the immune system. The main focus of ...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i-iii (3)

Claudio M. Mastroianni

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Preface

- Pp. iv-vi (3)

Emilio Jirillo, Thea Magrone and Giuseppe Miragliotta

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List of Contributors

- Pp. vii-x (4)

Emilio Jirillo, Thea Magrone and Giuseppe Miragliotta

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Neuroendocrine Control of the Immune Response During Helminth Infections

- Pp. 3-26 (24)

Karen Nava-Castro, Julieta Ivone Castro, Elizabeth Langley and Jorge Morales-Montor

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The Immune Response During Toxocariosis by Toxocara Canis

- Pp. 27-50 (24)

Fernando Alba-Hurtado, Lorena Chávez-Guitrón, Victor Hugo del Río- Araiza, Karen Nava-Castro and Jorge Morales-Montor

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Mechanisms of Immune Modulation by Fasciola Hepatica: The Impact of Innate Immune Cells on the Developing Adaptive Immune Response

- Pp. 51-67 (17)

Sandra M. O’Neill and Sheila Donnelly

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Parasite-Mediated Immune Modulation During the Development of Human Cystic Echinococcosis

- Pp. 69-91 (23)

Elisabetta Profumo, Alessandra Ludovisi, Brigitta Buttari, Maria Angeles Gomez Morales and Rachele Riganò

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The Immunobiology of Urogenital Schistosomiasis

- Pp. 93-124 (32)

Luke F. Pennington and Michael H. Hsieh

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The Translational Immunology of Trichinellosis: From Rodents to Humans

- Pp. 125-161 (37)

Fabrizio Bruschi and Maria Angeles Gómez-Morales

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Anisakis Simplex Infestation and Immune-Mediated Responses

- Pp. 163-173 (11)

Ventura M. Teresa, Buquicchio Rosalba, F. Gatti, F.L. Traetta and G. Iadarola

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Immunomodulation by Parasitic Helminths and its Therapeutic Exploitation

- Pp. 175-212 (38)

Miguel Angel Pineda and William Harnett

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Parasites-Based Immunotherapy to Treat Allergies and Autoimmune Diseases

- Pp. 213-234 (22)

Camila Alexandrina Figueiredo, Valdirene Leão Carneiro, Ryan Santos Costa, Leonardo Nascimento Santos, Raimon Rios and Neuza M Alcantara Neves

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The Impact of Helminths on the Human Microbiota: Therapeutic Correction of Disturbed Gut Microbial Immunity

- Pp. 235-254 (20)

Thea Magrone, Emilio Jirillo and Giuseppe Miragliotta

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Subject Index

- Pp. 255-256 (2)

Emilio Jirillo, Thea Magrone and Giuseppe Miragliotta

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Foreword

This eBook, edited by Jirillo E, Magrone T and Miragliotta G, is the second volume of a series on immune response to parasitic infections. The book consisting of 10 chapters provides an overview of the recent advances on immunity to helminthic parasites, which are among the most prevalent infectious agents in the world. The widespread prevalence of helminths worldwide is due to their ability to manipulate host immunity by secreting molecules with immunomodulatory activity. The ability of helminths to escape host immune response leads to establishment of long term chronic infections both in human and animal hosts. The interactions between host and helminths are more complex than previously thought. As discussed in Chapter 1 by Nava-Castro and Morales-Montor, helminthic parasites not only evade immune response, but are also able to activate a complex neuroendocrine network, that produces strong behavioural changes in the infected host favouring the establishment, growth and reproduction of parasites. In Chapter 2 (by Alba-Hurtado et al.) and Chapter 3 (by O’Neill and Donnelly) the innate and adaptive immune responses towards Toxocara canis and Fasciola hepatica, two important zoonotic helminths in both humans and animals, are discussed. F. hepatica is an excellent model to elucidate mechanisms involved in Th1-immune suppression and the induction of Th2/Treg immune responses, while the importance for Th1 and Th2 immune responses is well highlighted in all models of Toxocara parasitic disease. Chapter 4 (by Profumo et al.) illustrates the current findings about the complex host-parasite interaction during hydatidosis, a helminth disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus with a worldwide prevalence of approximately 3 million cases. In particular, great emphasis has been given to a number of molecules of E. granulosus that are able to modulate the host immune response and to favour its survival. The analysis of parasite-mediated immune modulation during the development of human cystic echinococcosis is crucial to improve research on vaccines and control of this infection. In Chapter 5 Pennington and Hsieh provide an excellent coverage on the immunobiologic events that occur during S. haematobium infection from human and rodent studies. The knowledge of the host immune response to the different species of Trichinella both in humans and rodents is reviewed in Chapter 6 by Bruschi and Gómez-Morales. The authors described the different effector mechanisms involved in the control and elimination of this intracellular nematode. Particular attention has been paid not only to mechanisms of evasion and immunomodulation, but also to the evaluation of the humoral immune response with the aim to improve the development of diagnostic tests for trichinellosis.

Anisakis simplex is the main causative agent of Anisakiasis, an underestimated infestation that is acquired through the consumption of raw parasitized fish. Chapter 7 by Ventura et al. focuses on the immunopathogenesis of the disease, taking into account the role of gastrointestinal inflammatory response that involves the massive recruitment of eosinophils at the site of infection. The concept of manipulation of host immunity by helminths is widely discussed in Chapter 8 by Pineda and Harnett. The identification of helminth-derived molecules involved in immunoregulation is of great importance to understand immunopathogenesis of helminth infections. Paradoxically, these secreted products could represent the basis for the development of innovative strategies for the treatment of allergic and autoimmune diseases. The same topic is further discussed in Chapter 9 by Figueiredo et al. which reviewed epidemiological and experimental evidences whereby helminth infections are able to protect their hosts from immune mediated diseases. Studies that assess the development of parasites-based immunotherapy to treat immune-mediated disorders should be strongly encouraged. Finally, the editors of this e-book (Chapter 10) provide new insights in the interaction between helminths and human microbiota. In particular, they suggest that therapeutic correction of altered gut microbial immunity may interfere with helminth development. The authors reported their recent findings on the effect of polyphenols to downregulate the immunopathology in helminth infection. On these grounds, daily intake of polyphenols may be beneficial in chronic helminth infections by directly inducing parasite death and shaping the gut microbiota.

In conclusions, the present e-book provides key advances in our knowledge of the immunlogic mechanisms involved in the helminth infections. Importantly, this eBook integrates both basic and clinical immunology with relevant implications for the development of protective and therapeutic strategies for helminthiasis.

Claudio M. Mastroianni
Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases
Sapienza University
Rome
Italy


Preface

Helminths can survive in the host for years in view of their ability to elude immune responses through various strategies. Therefore, a better knowledge of the immune mechanisms elicited by the host against invading helminths is fundamental for understanding pathogenesis of parasitoses as well as elaborating therapeutic measures to control or eradicate worm infections. At the same time, helminth-mediated immune response can be exploited to treat other human chronic diseases. All these concepts will be illustrated in the present ebook, entitled “Immunity to Helminths and Therapeutic Novel Approaches”.

Karen Nava-Castro and Jorge Morales-Montor in their chapter entitled “Neuroendocrine control of the immune response during helminth infections” will elucidate how the host neuroendocrine system may favor the establishment of parasitic infections, thus emphasizing interesting perspectives into the host parasite relationship field. Fernando Alba-Hurtado, Lorena Chávez-Guitrón, Victor Hugo del Río-Araiza, Karen Nava-Castro and Jorge Morales-Montor in their chapter entitled “The immune response during toxocariosis by Toxocara canis” will review the major immunological responses that participate in the infection development with the aim to design more accurate immunodiagnostic methods and develop new vaccines. Sandra M. O’Neill and Sheila Donnelly in their chapter entitled “Mechanisms of immune modulation by Fasciola hepatica: the impact of innate immune cells on the developing adaptive immune response” will examine the crosstalk between F. hepatica and dendritic cells, macrophages and mast cells with special reference to the development of Th1/Th17 immune responses. Elisabetta Profumo, Alessandra Ludovisi, Brigitta Buttari, Maria Angeles Gomez Morales and Rachele Riganò in their chapter entitled “Parasite-mediated immune modulation during the development of human cystic echinococcosis” will discuss current findings about the human immune response during the development of cystic echinococcosis and the ability of Echinococcus granulosus to regulate as well as to exploit the host’s immune system. Luke F. Pennington and Michael H. Hsieh in their chapter entitled “The Immunobiology of Urogenital Schistosomiasis” will illustrate the immunological mechanism during S. haematobium infection and novel S. haematobium infection models for a better understanding of disease pathogenesis. Fabrizio Bruschi and Maria Angeles Gómez-Morales in their chapter “The Translational Immunology of Trichinellosis: from Rodents to Humans” describe different aspects of the host innate and adaptive immune response to the different species of Trichinella in humans, as well as in rodents which are one of the most studied experimental models. Ventura MT, Buquicchio R, Gatti F, Traetta FL and Iadarola G, in their chapter entitled “Anisakis simplex Infestation and Immune-Mediated Responses” report that Anisakis (A.) can trigger different kinds of hypersensitivities and, in particular, the I, III and IV type. The involvement of eosinophils in tissue lesions will also be discussed. Miguel Angel Pineda and William Harnett in their chapter entitled “Immunomodulation by Parasitic Helminths and its Therapeutic Exploitation” summarize the current molecular mechanisms of worm infections and their potential clinical application for treatment of allergy and autoimmune diseases, like asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and multiple sclerosis. Camila Alexandrina Figueiredo, Ryan Santos Costa, Leonardo Nascimento Santos and Neuza M Alcantara Neves in their chapter entitled “Parasites-Based Immunotherapy to Treat Immune Mediated Diseases” will review the mechanisms which allow helminths to protect the host from immune-mediated diseases and the development of biological products for treatment and prophylaxis of various immunopathologies. Thea Magrone, Emilio Jirillo and Giuseppe Miragliotta in their chapter entitled “The impact of helminths on the human microbiota: therapeutic correction of disturbed gut microbial immunity” will focus on the therapeutic potential of polyphenols that have been shown to modulate gut microbiota, also interfering with helminth development. In this context, polyphenols possess anti-inflammatory activities, even including expansion and activation of Treg cells which may attenuate immunopathology in the later phase of helminth infections.

Emilio Jirillo
Department of Basic Medical Sciences
Neuroscience and Sensory Organs
University of Bari
Bari (Italy)

Thea Magrone
Department of Basic Medical Sciences
Neuroscience and Sensory Organs
University of Bari
Bari (Italy)

&

Giuseppe Miragliotta
Department of Interdisciplinary Medicine
University of Bari
Bari (Italy)

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Emilio Jirillo
University of Bari
Italy


Thea Magrone
University of Bari
Italy


Giuseppe Miragliotta
University of Bari
Italy




Contributor(s):
Alba-Hurtado Fernando
Departamento de Parasitología
Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Mexico


Neuza M. Alcantara Neves
Instituto de Ciências da Saúde
Universidade Federal da Bahia
Salvador-Bahia
Brazil


Bruschi Fabrizio
Department of Translational Research
N.T.M.S.
Università di Pisa
Scuola Medica
Pisa
Italy


Buquicchio Rosalba
Unit of Dermatology
University of Bari Medical School
Policlinico
Bari
Italy


Buttari Brigitta
Dipartimento di Malattie Infettive
Parassitarie ed Immunomediate
Istituto Superiore di Sanit
Rome
Italy


Chávez-Guitrón Lorena
Departamento de Parasitología
Facultad de Estudios Superiores Cuautitlán
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Mexico


del Río-Araiza Victor Hugo
Departamento de Inmunología
Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
México


Donnelly Sheila
School of Biotechnology
Faculty of Science and Health
Dublin
Ireland
/
the i3 Institute
University of Technology Sydney
Ultimo
New South Wales
Australia


Figueiredo Camila Alexandrina
Instituto de Ciências da Saúde
Universidade Federal da Bahia
Salvador-Bahia
Brazil


Gatti F
Unit of Gastroenterology and Digestive Endoscopy
S. Camillo De Lellis Hospital
Manfredonia
Foggia
Italy


Gomez Morales Maria Angeles
Department of Infectious
Parasitic and Immunomediated Diseases
Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Rome
Italy


Harnett William
Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences
University of Strathclyde
Glasgow
G4 ORE
UK


Michael H. Hsieh
Department of Urology
Stanford Immunology
Stanford University
Stanford
California
USA


Iadarola G
Department of Internal Medicine
Clinical Immunology and Allergology of Foggia General Hospital
University Medical School
Foggia
Italy


Jirillo Emilio
Department of Basic Medical Sciences
Neuroscience and Sensory Organs
University of Bari
Bari
Italy


Ludovisi Alessandra
Dipartimento di Malattie Infettive
Parassitarie ed Immunomediate
Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Rome
Italy


Magrone Thea
Department of Basic Medical Sciences
Neuroscience and Sensory Organs
University of Bari
Bari
Italy


Miragliotta Giuseppe
Department of Interdisciplinary Medicine
University of Bari
Bari
Italy


Morales-Montor Jorge
Departamento de Inmunología
Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
México


Nascimento Santos Leonardo
Instituto de Ciências da Saúde
Universidade Federal da Bahia
Salvador-Bahia
Brazil


Nava-Castro Karen
Facultad de Química
Departamento de Biología
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
México DF 04510
México


O’Neill Sandra
Departamento de Inmunología
Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
México


Pennington Luke
Stanford Immunology
Stanford University
Stanford
California
USA


Pineda Miguel Angel
Division of Immunology, Infection and Inflammation
University of Glasgow
Glasgow, G12 8TA
UK


Profumo Elisabetta
Dipartimento di Malattie Infettive
Parassitarie ed Immunomediate
Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Rome
Italy


Riganò Rachele
Dipartimento di Malattie Infettive
Parassitarie ed Immunomediate
Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Rome
Italy


Santos Costa
Instituto de Ciências da Saúde
Universidade Federal da Bahia
Salvador-Bahia
Brazil


Traetta PL
Unit of Clinical Immunology and Allergology
“Miulli” Hospital, Acquaviva delle Fonti
Bari
Italy


Ventura Maria Teresa
Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine
University of Bari Medical School
Policlinico
Bari
Italy




Reviews

“…The comparative character of the chapters for the different organisms is intriguing… …the comprehensive overview presented in this book becomes an attractive source for students… and for teachers…” – Peter Kern, Clinical Infectious Diseases Volume 60, Issue 11, June 1 2015 – Oxford Journals

Clinical Infectious Diseases
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