Frontiers in Nanomedicine

Volume 1

by

Maria Luisa Bondì

eISBN: 978-1-68108-046-8, 2015
ISBN: 978-1-68108-047-5
ISSN: 2405-9129 (Print)
ISSN: 2405-9137 (Online)



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Frontiers in Nanomedicine offers an up-to-date understanding of nanomaterials to readers having clinical or biomolecu...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i

Giovanna Pitarresi

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Preface

- Pp. ii-iii (2)

Maria Luisa Bondì, Chiara Botto and Erika Amore

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iv-vi (3)

Maria Luisa Bondì, Chiara Botto and Erika Amore

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Nanoparticles for Diagnostics and Imaging

- Pp. 3-46 (44)

Miguel Larguinho, Sara Figueiredo, Ana Cordeiro, Fábio Ferreira Carlos, Milton Cordeiro, Pedro Pedrosa and Pedro V. Baptista

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Emerging Use of Nanotechnology for the Treatment of Liver Diseases

- Pp. 47-83 (37)

Melchiorre Cervello, Lydia Giannitrapani, Maria Rita Emma, Giuseppa Augello, Antonella Cusimano, Daniele Balasus, Antonina Azzolina, Maurizio Soresi and Giuseppe Montalto

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Galactose-Decorated Polymeric Carriers for Hepatocyte-Selective Drug Targeting

- Pp. 84-107 (24)

Emanuela Fabiola Craparo and Gennara Cavallaro

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Nanomedicine for Delivery of Drugs in Breast Cancer: Recent Advances and Prospects

- Pp. 108-160 (53)

Silvia Arpicco

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Applications of Nanoparticles for Alzheimer’s Disease Diagnosis and/or Treatment

- Pp. 161-221 (61)

Spyridon Mourtas, Eleni Markoutsa, Athanassios Skouras, Konstantina Papadia and Sophia G. Antimisiaris

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Non-Viral Nano-Vectors for Nucleic Acid Delivery

- Pp. 222-255 (34)

S. R. Simon Ting, Eun Hee Min, Michael B. Cortie, Hung T. Nguyen and Gyorgy Hutvagner

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Subject Index

- Pp. 256-260 (5)

Maria Luisa Bondì, Chiara Botto and Erika Amore

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Foreword

The urgent need to reduce the side effects of drug administration requires to increase the concentration of drug to the targeted body part of interest. The introduction of nanotechnology, which involves creation and utilization of materials, devices or systems on the nanometer scale, allowed to design and develop nanocarriers able to deliver the drug to a target organ, minimizing the drug’s effects on the healthy tissues, thus reducing its side effects. The application of nanotechnology to medicine, designated as nanomedicine has greatly accelerated not only the treatment of many diseases, but also the diagnosis and the imaging. Target-specific drug therapy and methods for early diagnosis of pathologies are the priority research areas where nanotechnology would play a vital role.

However, even with excellent new materials, some questions have to be solved: how to improve a nanocarrier for real applications? What is the state of the art of the research into the drug delivery systems? This e-Book is written with these questions in mind. How nanomaterials are employed in the disease treatment and in diagnostic purposes.

This e-Book edited by Dr. M. Luisa Bondì, Dr. Chiara Botto and Dr. Erika Amore is of interest for not only specialists in pharmaceutical technology, but also graduate students and researchers in materials for drug delivery, biomolecular recognition and medical imaging since “Frontiers in Nanomedicine” links academic knowledge to both research know-how and the avant-garde industrial application of advanced materials for drug delivery systems of industrial application.

Giovanna Pitarresi
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche Chimiche e Farmaceutiche (STEBICEF)
University of Palermo
Palermo
Italy


Preface

The problems related to the side effects of conventional drug administration led to a growing interest towards the development of systems able to release drugs selectively into the target site and at controlled rate. Basically, a good targeted drug delivery system should localize and prolong the drug action, with the inherent advantage of reducing the administered drug dose, decreasing consequently side effects.

In the field of drug delivery systems, colloidal carriers, and in particular nano-scaled carriers, had a great impact, being made of biocompatible materials and suitable for any route of administration and different pathologies, difficult to treat with conventional therapies.

The application of nanostructured materials to medicine has greatly accelerated not only the treatment of many diseases, but also the diagnosis. In fact, the development of nanotechnologybased imaging devices improved the specificity and sensitivity of diagnostic imaging by allowing the non-invasive and quantitative detection of specific biomolecules in humans, enabling the characterization of biological processes at the cellular and/or molecular level.

Chapters written by experts will make the reader acquainted with a variety of topics ranging from nanoparticles for drug, gene delivery and for bio-imaging purposes.

In particular, Chapter 1 discusses the use of nanoparticles in biomolecular recognition and imaging applications, describing nucleic acids and biomarker detection and focusing on the systems already being translated into clinical settings.

Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 focus their attention on the use of nanostructured systems for the treatment of liver diseases. In Chapter 2, the physiology and anatomy of the liver, the epidemiology, natural history and current clinical treatments of liver diseases are summarized, followed by a description of the most common nanoparticle types employed in the treatment of liver diseases, as well as a description of preclinical and clinical evidence for the treatment of liver diseases by nanotechnology approaches. Chapter 3 discusses the available strategies to realize targeted drug delivery to hepatocytes by galactose-decorated nanostructured systems based on polymers, i.e. in viral hepatitis and in liver cancer, when hepatocyte is the key target cell for therapeutic interventions.

Breast cancer is the subject of Chapter 4, presenting an overview of different nanoparticulate drug delivery systems developed for breast cancer treatment either under preclinical or clinical evaluation and also discussing different ways to obtain targeted delivery.

Targeted drug delivery systems are particularly required for brain-located pathologies, since the blood-brain barrier (BBB) seriously impedes any treatment approach. Recent results demonstrating the ability of nanoparticles to traverse the BBB provide potential alternate means for targeted drug delivery to the central nervous system and novel therapeutic and/or early diagnosis applications.

Chapter 5 describes the most recent attempts to develop nanoparticulate systems for diagnosis and/or therapy of Alzheimer’s Disease. All types of nanoparticles which have been employed upto- date to target Alzheimer’s Disease are described and also a brief description of BBB physiology and methodologies used for studying transport of drugs across the BBB are mentioned.

Gene therapy is an important strategy for providing treatment for diseases that have been left uncured for decades. Therapeutic nucleic acids comprise different types of DNA and RNA, that need an effective and safe drug delivery system to cross the cell plasma and arrive to the nucleus.

In this regard, synthetic nano-vectors are emerging as safer alternatives to viral vectors as carriers for nucleic acid delivery. Compared to the viral vectors, the synthetic ones are more biocompatible, less cytotoxic and can be designed and synthesized to overcome biological barriers and target specific areas of interest. Moreover, they can protect nucleic acids from enzymatic degradation in the harsh biological environment. Chapter 6 highlights recent progress about synthetic nano-vectors for delivery of nucleic acids, discussing some of the common nucleic acids and the mechanisms currently used in synthetic nano-vectors for their delivery.

This e-Book provides to scientists a short but reasonably comprehensive overview of the most recent research strategies for the design of drug delivery systems based on advanced materials for nanomedicine applications. It explains the use of nanotechnology in medicine to improve the diagnosis of disease and the role of nanoparticles as targeted drug delivery systems for application in disease therapy and diagnostics. The goal of the authors is to offer to readers an up-to-date understanding of these materials with either a clinical or research interest in this field.

Maria Luisa Bondì
Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati U.O.S. Palermo
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche
via Ugo La Malfa, 153
90146 Palermo
Italy

&

Chiara Botto & Erika Amore
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche Chimiche e Farmaceutiche
(STEBICEF)
University of Palermo
Palermo
Italy

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Maria Luisa Bondì
Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati U.O.S. Palermo
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche
via Ugo La Malfa, 153
90146 Palermo
Italy




Co-Editor(s):
Chiara Botto
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, (STEBICEF)
University of Palermo
Palermo
Italy


Erika Amore
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, (STEBICEF)
University of Palermo
Palermo
Italy




Contributor(s):
Ana Cordeiro
CIGMH/DCV, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia/Universidade NOVA de Lisboa.
Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia
2829-516 Caparica
Portugal


Antonella Cusimano
Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology “Alberto Monroy”
National Research Council (CNR)
Via Ugo La Malfa 153
90146 Palermo
Italy


Antonina Azzolina
Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology “Alberto Monroy”
National Research Council (CNR)
Via Ugo La Malfa 153
90146 Palermo
Italy


Athanassios Skouras
Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Dept. of Pharmacy
University of Patras, & Foundation of Research and Technology Hellas - Institute of Chemical Engineering
Platani, 26504
Greece


Daniele Balasus
Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology “Alberto Monroy”
National Research Council (CNR)
Via Ugo La Malfa 153
90146 Palermo
Italy


Eleni Markoutsa
Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Dept. of Pharmacy
University of Patras, & Foundation of Research and Technology Hellas - Institute of Chemical Engineering
Platani, 26504
Greece


Emanuela Fabiola Craparo
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche Chimiche e Farmaceutiche (STEBICEF)
University of Palermo
90123 Palermo
Italy


Eun Hee Min
Centre for Health Technologies
University of Technology Sydney
PO Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007
Australia


Fábio Ferreira Carlos
CIGMH/DCV, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia/Universidade NOVA de Lisboa. Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia
2825-182 Caparica
Portugal
/
STABVIDA, Investigação e Serviços em Ciências Biológicas, Lda. Madan Parque
2825-182 Caparica
Portugal


Gennara Cavallaro
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche Chimiche e Farmaceutiche (STEBICEF)
University of Palermo
via Archirafi 32
90123 Palermo
Italy


Giuseppa Augello
Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology “Alberto Monroy”
National Research Council (CNR)
Via Ugo La Malfa 153
90146 Palermo
Italy


Giuseppe Montalto
Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology “Alberto Monroy”
National Research Council (CNR)
Via Ugo La Malfa 153
90146 Palermo
Italy
/
Biomedical Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties
University of Palermo
Via del Vespro 143
90127 Palermo
Italy


Gyorgy Hutvagner
Centre for Health Technologies
University of Technology Sydney
PO Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007
Australia


Hung T. Nguyen
Centre for Health Technologies
University of Technology Sydney
PO Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007
Australia


Konstantina Papadia
Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Dept. of Pharmacy
University of Patras, & Foundation of Research and Technology Hellas - Institute of Chemical Engineering, (FORTH/ICE-HT)
Platani
Greece


Lydia Giannitrapani
Biomedical Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties
University of Palermo
Via del Vespro 143
90127 Palermo
Italy


Maria Rita Emma
Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology “Alberto Monroy”, National Research Council (CNR)
Via Ugo La Malfa 153
90146 Palermo
Italy
/
Biomedical Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties, University of Palermo
Via del Vespro 143
90127 Palermo
Italy


Maurizio Soresi
Biomedical Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties
University of Palermo
Via del Vespro 143
90127 Palermo
Italy


Melchiorre Cervello
Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology “Alberto Monroy”
National Research Council (CNR)
Via Ugo La Malfa 153
90146 Palermo
Italy


Michael B. Cortie
Institute for Nanoscale Technology
University of Technology Sydney
Sydney
Australia


Miguel Larguinho
CIGMH/DCV, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia/Universidade NOVA de Lisboa. Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia
2829-516 Caparica
Portugal
/
REQUIMTE/DQ, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia/Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia
2829-516 Caparica
Portugal


Milton Cordeiro
CIGMH/DCV, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia/Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia Caparica
2829-516 Caparica
Portugal
/
REQUIMTE/DQ, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia/Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia
2829-516 Caparica
Portugal


Pedro Pedrosa
CIGMH/DCV, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia/Universidade NOVA de Lisboa.
Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia
Caparica
Portugal


Pedro V. Baptista
CIGMH/DCV, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia/Universidade NOVA de Lisboa.
Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia
Caparica
Portugal


S. R. Simon Ting
Centre for Health Technologies
University of Technology Sydney
PO Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007
Australia


Sara Figueiredo
CIGMH/DCV, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia/Universidade NOVA de Lisboa.
Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia
Caparica
Portugal


Silvia Arpicco
Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco
Università di Torino
Via Giuria 9
10125 Torino
Italy


Sophia G. Antimisiaris
Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Dept. of Pharmacy
University of Patras, & Foundation of Research and Technology Hellas - Institute of Chemical Engineering, (FORTH/ICE-HT)
Platani
Greece


Spyridon Mourtas
Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Dept. of Pharmacy
University of Patras, & Foundation of Research and Technology Hellas - Institute of Chemical Engineering, (FORTH/ICE-HT)
Platani
Greece




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