Cancer Immunotherapy: Mechanisms of Cancer Immunity, Engineering Immune-Based Therapies and Developing Clinical Trials

Book Series: Frontiers in Cancer Immunology

Volume 1

by

Jianxun Song

eISBN: 978-1-68108-048-2, 2015
ISBN: 978-1-68108-049-9
ISSN: 2405-9102 (Print)
ISSN: 2405-9110 (Online)



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Clinicians, patients and scientists, alike, have been battling cancer for over several decades; however, patient outcomes have not sig...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i

Thomas P. Loughran

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Preface

- Pp. ii-iii (2)

Jianxun Song

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iv-vi (3)

Jianxun Song

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Introduction: Tumor and the Host Immune System

- Pp. 3-24 (22)

Fengyang Lei, Mohammad Haque, Kristin Fino, Xiaofang Xiong and Jianxun Song

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T Cell-Based Immunotherapy

- Pp. 25-46 (22)

Tania G. Rodríguez-Cruz and Stephen Gottschalk

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NK Cell-Based Immunotherapy

- Pp. 47-68 (22)

Adam W. Mailloux and Pearlie K. Epling-Burnette

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The Basics of Cancer Immunity Dc-Based Immunotherapy: Gliomas as a Paradigm Disease?

- Pp. 69-90 (22)

Steven De Vleeschouwer

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Cytokines in Cancer Immunotherapy: The Yin and Yang Aspects of IL-12 Family of Cytokines

- Pp. 91-104 (14)

Zhenzhen Liu, Yun Shi, Ming-Song Li and Xue-Feng Bai

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Genetically Engineered T Cell Immunotherapy for Gliomas and Other Solid Tumors

- Pp. 105-122 (18)

Richard G. Everson, Colin C. Malone, Kate L. Erickson, Elena I. Fomchenko, Robert M. Prins, Linda M. Liau and Carol A. Kruse

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Therapeutic Antibody Engineering

- Pp. 123-145 (23)

Anatoliy Markiv

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Interferon-Alfa as a Vaccine Adjuvant

- Pp. 146-171 (26)

Megan C. Duggan and William E. Carson III

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Targeting T Cell Costimulation

- Pp. 172-201 (30)

Yangbing Zhao

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Regeneration of Tumor Antigen-Specific T Cells Using iPSC Technology

- Pp. 202-214 (13)

Hiroshi Kawamoto

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Neutralizing Regulatory T Cells

- Pp. 215-235 (21)

Ivan Shevchenko and Viktor Umansky

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Cancer Vaccines: Current Status and Future Perspectives

- Pp. 236-258 (23)

Yu Sawada, Toshiaki Yoshikawa, Kazuya Ofuji, Mayuko Sakai and Tetsuya Nakatsura

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Summary and Short-Term Outlook

- Pp. 259-268 (10)

Jianxun Song

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Index

- Pp. 269-274 (6)

Jianxun Song

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Foreword

It is a privilege to write the Foreword for this book which is an outstanding review of cutting edge cancer immunotherapy. Despite early promises in some cancers, immunotherapy had generally failed to achieve consistent success. This scenario has changed drastically in the past few years. Indeed, Science Magazine hailed the advances in cancer immunotherapy as the number one breakthrough in all scientific disciplines for 2013.

The chapters of the book encompass all the different aspects of cancer immunotherapy and are authored by worldwide authorities in this field. There is a nice introductory chapter by the editor J. Song who provides a broad overview of the field. All chapters have a focus on clinical application and translational medicine. Individual chapters discuss the basic immunology of cytotoxic T cells, NK cells, dendritic cells, and regulatory T cells. Cancer vaccines draw attention in the dendritic cell chapter as well as in a focused separate chapter near the end of the book. Cytokines are also discussed extensively with a chapter discussing the role of IFNα as a vaccine adjuvant. Potential therapeutic roles for cytokines of the IL-12 family are the basis of another chapter.

Extensive consideration of technological advances is a focus of the book. These methodologies include genetic engineering of T cells, targeting of T cell co-stimulation, and antibody engineering. Adoption of such technologies has shown marked clinical responses in a variety of cancers. A limitation of the field of adoptive T cell therapy has been the challenge in generally sufficient numbers of antigen- specific T cells. The generation of such antigen - specific CTL using iPSC technology then is a fascinating potential solution as proposed in Chapter 10.

I would like to congratulate the editor, J. Song for bringing together a stellar group from around the world to summarize the current state of the art in the reinvigorated field of cancer immunotherapy.

Thomas P. Loughran
F. Palmer Weber-Smithfield Foods
Professor in Oncology Research
University of Virginia
USA


Preface

Battling cancer is an all-time endeavor of both clinicians and scientists in the past several decades; however, the patient outcomes have not been significantly improved with those efforts, which urge people to find new strategies to change the status quo. In recent years, in the awareness that the human immune system has its intrinsic mechanism to control microbial pathogens and dysfunctioned self-tissues, therefore, people started to conceive the idea of treating cancer by using the immune mechanism that shortly has become a major research field coined as cancer immunotherapy. After gaining solid evidences in recent years that immunotherapy has critically enhanced the prognoses of cancer patients, it acclaimed a wider recognition from the society, for instances, it has been named the 2013 Science’s Breakthrough of the Year. Of note, at this cheerful moment, it is a great pleasure and honor for us to provide our understandings and perspectives in cancer immunotherapy by presenting this book to our respected audiences. We hope this book will help audiences comprehend the concept and mechanistic studies involved in this emerging but booming subject of cancer immunotherapy.

The key feature of this book is it attempts to summarize different approaches have been studied and used in cancer immunotherapy based on the different components of human immune system. The book lists the major immune system components which have been demonstrated involving in limiting or killing tumor and their relevant applications in treating cancer patients. In addition, general introductions of engineered as well as targeted cancer immunotherapies are also included in this book to further broad the scope of our audiences. In summary, this book serves as a big map trying to picture all major branches in cancer immunotherapy; meanwhile, it also tries to pull different information together to give our audiences a general impression of utilizing components of the immune system in treating cancer.

In terms of the organization of this book, first of all, in the opening section of this book, it briefly summarizes the major features of different components of human immune system then introduces the relationships and interactions between tumor and the immune system. Later on, it focuses on the immunity of different immune components that against tumor and their relevant applications in clinics. The second section emphasizes on the cancer immunotherapy by using engineered components of the immune system to treat cancer, such as engineered antibodies, T cell receptors and cytokines. Following this, the concluding section of this book puts some outlooks on the emerging studies in designing of potential new cancer therapies, for example, targeting costimulatory signals in controlling T cell function; applying stem cell as a novel source of T cells in treating cancer; restraining aberrant regulatory T cells in cancer patients, and modulating tumor microenvironment to minimize its suppressive effects on anti-cancer immunity.

Hopefully, this book series will provide an introductory description about this complex concept of cancer immunotherapy. For the best comprehension and use of the knowledge and insights this book provides, readers are highly recommended to read the references listed at the end of each chapter and browse up-to-date literatures on specific topic readers are interested in. Also, we acknowledge that it is merely possible to cover all detailed information about this fast-growing specialty of cancer immunotherapy in this book through our limited efforts, therefore, we sincerely encourage our readers to keep searching the most updated literature and we believe this is the most efficient approach to capture the essences in cancer immunotherapy.





Jianxun Song
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine
Hershey, PA 17033
USA

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Jianxun Song
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine
Hershey
PA 17033
USA




Contributor(s):
Adam W. Mailloux
H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center
SRB 23033, Tampa
FL 33612
USA


Anatoliy Markiv
Faculty of Sciences and Technology
University of Westminster
London
UK


Carol A. Kruse
Department of Neurosurgery
David Geffen School of Medicine,University of California
Los Angeles
CA 90095
USA


Colin C. Malone
Department of Neurosurgery
David Geffen School of Medicine,University of California
Los Angeles
CA 90095
USA


Elena I. Fomchenko
Department of Neurosurgery
David Geffen School of Medicine,University of California
Los Angeles
CA 90095
USA


Fengyang Lei
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine
Hershey
PA 17033
USA


Hiroshi Kawamoto
Department of Immunology
Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University
Kyoto 606-8507
Japan


Ivan Shevchenko
Skin Cancer Unit, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg and Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology
University Medical Center Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karl University of Heidelberg
Mannheim
Germany


Jianxun Song
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine
Hershey
PA 17033
USA


Kate L. Erickson
Department of Neurosurgery
David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California
Los Angeles
CA 90095
USA


Kazuya Ofuji
Division of Cancer Immunotherapy
Exploratory Oncology Research and Clinical Trial Center, National Cancer Center
Japan


Kristin Fino
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine
Hershey
PA 17033
USA


Linda M. Liau
Department of Neurosurgery
David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California
Los Angeles
CA 90095
USA


Mayuko Sakai
Division of Cancer Immunotherapy
Exploratory Oncology Research and Clinical Trial Center, National Cancer Center
Japan


Megan C. Duggan
Comprehensive Cancer Center
The Ohio State University
Columbus
OH 43210
USA


Ming-Song Li
Department of Gastroenterology
Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University
Guangzhou
China


Mohammad Haque
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine
Hershey
PA 17033
USA


Pearlie K. Epling-Burnette
H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, SRB 23033
Tampa
FL 33612
USA


Richard G. Everson
Department of Neurosurgery
David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California
Los Angeles
CA 90095
USA


Robert M. Prins
Department of Neurosurgery
David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California
Los Angeles
CA 90095
USA


Stephen Gottschalk
Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Texas Children’s Hospital
Houston Methodist Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine
Houston
Texas
USA
/
Department of Pediatrics, and Pathology and Immunology
Baylor College of Medicine
Houston
Texas
USA


Steven De Vleeschouwer
Department of Neurosciences
Experimental Neurosurgery and Neuroanatomy
KU Leuven
Belgium


Tania G. Rodríguez-Cruz
Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Texas Children’s Hospital
Houston Methodist Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine
Houston
Texas
USA


Tetsuya Nakatsura
Division of Cancer Immunotherapy
Exploratory Oncology Research and Clinical Trial Center, National Cancer Center
Japan


Toshiaki Yoshikawa
Division of Cancer Immunotherapy
Exploratory Oncology Research and Clinical Trial Center, National Cancer Center
Japan


Viktor Umansky
Skin Cancer Unit, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg and Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology
University Medical Center Mannheim, Ruprecht-Karl University of Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Germany


William E. Carson III
Comprehensive Cancer Center
The Ohio State University
Columbus
OH 43210
USA


Xiaofang Xiong
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine
Hershey
PA 17033
USA


Xue-Feng Bai
Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center
The Ohio State University
Columbus
OH
USA


Yangbing Zhao
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine,Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute
Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia
PA 19104
USA


Yu Sawada
Division of Cancer Immunotherapy
Exploratory Oncology Research and Clinical Trial Center, National Cancer Center
Japan


Yun Shi
Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center
The Ohio State University
Columbus
OH
USA
/
Department of Gastroenterology
Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University
Guangzhou
China


Zhenzhen Liu
Department of Pathology and Comprehensive Cancer Center
The Ohio State University
Columbus
OH
USA




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