Frontiers in Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery

Volume 6

by

Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS , M. Iqbal Choudhary

DOI: 10.2174/97816810814961150601
eISBN: 978-1-68108-149-6, 2015
ISBN: 978-1-68108-150-2
ISSN: 2451-8395 (Print)
ISSN: 1879-6656 (Online)



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Indexed in: Scopus, EMBASE

"Frontiers in Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery" is an eBook series devoted to publish...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Preface

- Pp. i-ii (2)

Atta-ur-Rahman and M. Iqbal Choudhary

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iii-iv (2)

Atta-ur-Rahman and M. Iqbal Choudhary

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Targeting Metabolic Reprogramming as an Anti- Cancer Strategy: Aiming at Monocarboxylate Transporters

- Pp. 3-65 (63)

Céline Pinheiro, Filipa Morais-Santos, Sara Granja, Vera Miranda- Gonçalves, Julieta Afonso, Ricardo Amorim and Fátima Baltazar

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Oxidative Stress/FOXO Pathway is Enhanced in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Interferon α-2b Treatment Favoring Cellular Apoptosis and Slowing Down Oncogenesis

- Pp. 66-90 (25)

María Cristina Carrillo, Juan Pablo Parody and María Paula Ceballos

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Roles of HIF Family and ROS Homeostasis in Stem Cells and Cancer

- Pp. 91-109 (19)

Kenly Wuputra, Ming-Ho Tsai, Kazunari K Yokoyama and Shigeo Saito

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Anthracyclines in Cancer Therapy: Past, Present Status and Future Prospects

- Pp. 110-136 (27)

Lidia Mazur and Małgorzata Opydo-Chanek

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Terpenoids in Cancer: Molecular Targets and Clinical Perspectives

- Pp. 137-195 (59)

Beatriz de las Heras and Sonsoles Hortelano

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Frontiers in Biological Therapies for Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

- Pp. 196-217 (22)

Liat Mlynarsky, Liane Rabinowich, Brian I. Carr and Oren Shibolet

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Use of Magnetosomes of Biological Origin, By Magnetic Hyperthermia for the Treatment of Tumors

- Pp. 218-248 (31)

Edouard Alphandéry

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Subject Index

- Pp. 249-258 (10)

Atta-ur-Rahman and M. Iqbal Choudhary

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Preface

Vol. 6 of the eBook series “Frontiers in Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery” comprises seven articles written by the leading researchers in this field. This volume is an excellent blend of well written articles in broad fields of search on new molecular targets in various cancers, and on the discovery and development of innovative anti-cancer therapies.

Cancer cells depend on glycolysis for energy as well as for biosynthetic intermediate production. Since they have high glycolytic rates, they upregulate glucose transporters and lactate transporters. The importance of monocarboxylate transporter isoforms I and II (MCT) has been recognized in mediating in the process of lactate efflux from cancer cells, facilitating the maintenance of high glycolytic rates, and aiding in the regulation of intracellular pH via a proton symport mechanism. As a result, MCT has emerged as a therapeutic target for anti-cancer therapy. In the first chapter by Pinheiro e al. discuss the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells in this context.

In chapter 2, Carrillo et al. discuss the use of interferon α-2b (IFN α-2b) as a therapy in treatment of certain carcinomas. The treatment causes an oxidative stress which fortifies the relationship between FOXO (Forkhead box class proteins) and β-catenin, and thus inhibits its interaction with the TCF in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This impairment of the formation of β-catenin/TCF4 complex promotes apoptosis and slows down the oncogenesis process.

Yokoyama et al. have used a stem model to understand the relationship between the hypoxia and cell proliferation in an attempt to identify new targets for anti-cancer therapies. Hypoxia induces the production of HIFs (Hypoxia induced factors) which help the stem cells to reprogram the cell growth and survival strategies. Similar hypoxic control also occurs in cancer cells. In chapter 3 they discuss the current state of knowledge about the role of oxidative and hypoxic stress in cell reprogramming and the implication of hypoxic regulation and ROS production in cancer progression.

Natural products have played pivotal role in the discovery and development of drugs throughout history. A large number of currently used antibiotics and anti-cancer drugs are natural products or their analogues. Anthracyclines, natural products derived from Streptomyces, are among the most effective anticancer drugs ever developed. They have been used for the treatment of various cancers including, lymphomas, leukemia, breast, uterine, ovarian, bladder, and lung cancers. However, this class of drugs has relative merits and demerits. Mazur and Opydo-Chanek, in chapter 4, present a comprehensive review on various strategies developed in the recent past to improve the efficacy of anthracycline drugs, and to reduce the adverse effects associated with their use. They conclude that anthracycline anticancer agents have a great future, provided that their efficacy and safety profile is improved through systematic research.

Terpenoids or terpenes are largest group of natural products, found in higher and lower plants, marine organisms, and other organisms. They are widely known for their biological activities. Terpenes, including essential oils, manifest their anti-cancer activity through multiple mechanisms, including microtubule stabilization or natural inhibitors of inflammatory pathways.

Heras and Hortelano in chapter 5 review the anti-tumor activity of various diverse classes of terpenoids that are in various stages of development.

Biological therapy of advanced liver cancer, called hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), holds special promise. HCC is among the most common malignancies, associated with a very high mortality rate. Current treatments of HCC, such as surgical resection, liver transplantation, and radiofrequency ablation, are far from perfect and prognosis is particularly very poor at the advanced stages of HCC. Shibolet et al. review the current therapy choices for advanced stage HCC in chapter 6, including emerging chemotherapies, and new biological therapies.

In the last chapter Alphandery has contributed an interesting review on the use of iron oxide nanoparticles, called bacterial magnetosomes (BM), in the treatment of various kinds of tumors. Magnetosomes are extracted from magnetostatic bacteria which are grown in special conditions. BMs have been proven to be useful in pre-clinical studies against breast cancer. These nanoparticles are heated by applying an alternating current, which eradicates tumor cells. Recent work in this field is comprehensively reviewed in this article.

We would like to express our gratitude to all the authors for their excellent contributions. We also wish to thank the entire team of the Bentham Science Publishers, particularly Ms. Fariya Zulfiqar (Assistant Manager Publications), Mr. Shehzad Naqvi (Senior Manager Publications) and team leader Mr. Mahmood Alam (Director Publications) for their efficient handling of this book at all stages of its publication. We are confident that this volume of the eBook series will receive wide appreciation, both from researchers as well as from health professionals.

Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS
Honorary Life Fellow
Kings College
University of Cambridge
UK

Prof. M. Iqbal Choudhary
H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry
International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences
University of Karachi
Pakistan

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS
University of Cambridge
Kings College
Cambridge
UK


Prof. M. Iqbal Choudhary
H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry
University of Karachi
Karachi-75270
Pakistan




Contributor(s):
Beatriz de las Heras
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM)
Madrid
Spain


Brian I. Carr
Liver unit, Department of Gastroenterology, Tel-Aviv Medical Center and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine
Tel-Aviv University
Tel-Aviv
Israel


Céline Pinheiro
Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences
University of Minho
Braga
Portugal
/
ICVS/3B’s-PT Government Associate Laboratory
Braga/Guimarães
Portugal
/
Barretos School of Health Sciences
Dr. Paulo Prata – FACISB
Barretos, São Paulo
Brazil
/
Molecular Oncology Research Center
Barretos Cancer Hospital
Barretos, São Paulo
Brazil


Edouard Alphandéry
Nanobacterie SARL, 36 boulevard Flandrin, 75116
Paris
France
/
Institute of Mineralogy and Condensed Matter Physics (IMPMC)
Pierre and Marie Curie University (UPMC)
4 place Jussieu, 75005
Paris
France


Fátima Baltazar
Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences
University of Minho
Braga
Portugal
/
ICVS/3B’s-PT Government Associate Laboratory
Braga/Guimarães
Portugal


Filipa Morais-Santos
Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences
University of Minho
Braga
Portugal
/
ICVS/3B’s-PT Government Associate Laboratory
Braga/Guimarães
Portugal


Juan Pablo Parody
Institute of Experimental Physiology (IFISE-CONICET), Faculty of Biochemistry and Pharmacological Sciences
National University of Rosario
Suipacha 570, 2000
Rosario
Argentina


Julieta Afonso
Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences
University of Minho
Braga
Portugal
/
ICVS/3B’s-PT Government Associate Laboratory
Braga/Guimarães
Portugal


Kazunari K Yokoyama
Center for Stem Cell Research, Center for Environmental Research
Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University
100 Shin-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 804
Taiwan


Kenly Wuputra
Center for Stem Cell Research, Center for Environmental Research
Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University
100 Shin-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 804
Taiwan


Mehrdad Asghari Estiar
Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine
Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Tehran
Iran


Liane Rabinowich
Liver unit, Department of Gastroenterology, Tel-Aviv Medical Center and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine
Tel-Aviv University
Tel-Aviv
Israel


Liat Mlynarsky
Liver unit, Department of Gastroenterology, Tel-Aviv Medical Center and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine
Tel-Aviv University
Tel-Aviv
Israel


Lidia Mazur
Department of Experimental Hematology
Jagiellonian University in Krakow
Gronostajowa 9, 30-387
Kraków
Poland


Małgorzata Opydo-Chanek
Department of Experimental Hematology
Jagiellonian University in Krakow
Gronostajowa 9, 30-387
Kraków
Poland


María Cristina Carrillo
Institute of Experimental Physiology (IFISE-CONICET), Faculty of Biochemistry and Pharmacological Sciences
National University of Rosario
Suipacha 570, 2000
Rosario
Argentina


María Paula Ceballos
Institute of Experimental Physiology (IFISE-CONICET), Faculty of Biochemistry and Pharmacological Sciences
National University of Rosario
Suipacha 570, 2000
Rosario
Argentina


Ming-Ho Tsai
Center for Stem Cell Research, Center for Environmental Research
Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University
100 Shin-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 804
Taiwan


Oren Shibolet
Liver unit, Department of Gastroenterology, Tel-Aviv Medical Center and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine
Tel-Aviv University
Tel-Aviv
Israel


Ricardo Amorim
Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences
University of Minho
Braga
Portugal
/
ICVS/3B’s-PT Government Associate Laboratory
Braga/Guimarães
Portugal


Sara Granja
Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences
University of Minho
Braga
Portugal
/
ICVS/3B’s-PT Government Associate Laboratory
Braga/Guimarães
Portugal


Shigeo Saito
Saito Laboratory of Cell Technology
Yaita, Tochigi 329-1571
Japan
/
SPK Co., Ltd. Aizuwakamatsu
Fukushima 965-0025
Japan


Sonsoles Hortelano
Unidad de Terapias Farmacológicas. Área de Genética Humana. Instituto de Investigación de Enfermedades Raras (IIER)
Instituto de Salud Carlos III
Madrid
Spain


Vera Miranda-Gonçalves
Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences
University of Minho
Braga
Portugal
/
ICVS/3B’s-PT Government Associate Laboratory
Braga/Guimarães
Portugal




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