Advances in Genome Science

Volume 4

by

Atta-ur-Rahman

DOI: 10.2174/97816810817311160401
eISBN: 978-1-68108-173-1, 2016
ISBN: 978-1-68108-174-8
ISSN: 2452-3690 (Print)
ISSN: 2213-6606 (Online)



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Genome science or genomics is essential for advanced knowledge in the fields of biology and medicine. Specifically, researchers learn ...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Preface

- Pp. i-ii (2)

Atta-ur-Rahman

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Contributors

- Pp. iii-iv (2)

Atta-ur-Rahman

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Prader-Willi Syndrome: A Rare Obesity-related Genomic Imprinting Disorder

- Pp. 3-29 (27)

Merlin G. Butler

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GJB2 Gene Mutations in Syndromic Skin Diseases with Sensorineural Hearing Loss

- Pp. 30-46 (17)

Sandra Iossa, Elio Marciano and Annamaria Franzé

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Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors; Therapies for Thyroid Cancer

- Pp. 47-61 (15)

Silvia Martina Ferrari, Poupak Fallahi, Enke Baldini, Salvatore Ulisse, Gabriele Materazzi, Paolo Miccoli and Alessandro Antonelli

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Shaping the Genome with Non-coding RNAs

- Pp. 62-90 (29)

Xue Qing David Wang, Jennifer Lynn Crutchley and Josée Dostie

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Directed Evolution of Fungal Laccases: An Update

- Pp. 91-112 (22)

Diana M. Mate and Miguel Alcalde

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The MADS-box Genes Involved in Orchid Flower Development

- Pp. 113-142 (30)

Serena Aceto and Luciano Gaudio

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Perspectives on Systematic Analyses of Gene Function in Arabidopsis thaliana: New Tools, Topics and Trends

- Pp. 143-172 (30)

Cordelia Bolle, Anja Schneider and Dario Leister

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Genetic Engineering for Cold Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants

- Pp. 173-201 (29)

Shabir H. Wani, Saroj Kumar Sah, Gulzar Sanghera, Waseem Hussain and N.B. Singh

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Subject Index

- Pp. 202-208 (7)

Atta-ur-Rahman

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Preface

This fourth volume of the Advances in Genome Sciences continues the tradition of the previous volumes in bringing together a range of comprehensive and cutting edge reviews that present the exciting recent advances in this important field. This volume features updates of reviews published earlier in Current Genomics. The first 3 chapters cover specific types of human diseases followed by reviews on RNA research, fungal genomics and plant genomics.

The first chapter by Butler on current information about Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), a rare trisomy which can lead to childhood obesity. It summarize the clinical features, current understanding of genetic causes and natural history with clinical presentation of individuals suffering from PWS. In the second chapter Franze’ et al. provide an overview of recent developments regarding pathogenesis of syndromic deafness with an emphasis on relevant clinical genotype-phenotype correlations. Effects of some mutations on channels function and the relevant role of the hemichannel are discussed. These genetic defects can result in syndromic skin diseases and deafness. The Italian team led by Antonelli et al. discuss the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for thyroid cancer therapy. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) inhibit the process of auto-phosphorylation and activation by tyrosine kinases and they are emerging as new therapies against aggressive TC, including differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC).

Chapter 4 by Dostie et al. review the known lncRNA transcription regulation activities. They also discuss the potential mechanisms by which ncRNAs might exert three-dimensional transcriptional control and the recent studies that have revealed new facts about their role in shaping the human genome.

The next chapter by Mate and Alcalde comprehensively reviews the progress on genetic engineering of laccase enzymes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other fungi. Fungal laccases are biocatalysts with a wide range of potential applications that extending from bioremediation to novel green processes. Fuelled by molecular oxygen, they can oxidise many different types of substrates including xenobiotic compounds (pesticides, industrial dyes, PAHs), biopolymers (lignin, starch, cellulose) and other molecules. The authors discuss the efforts to convert fungal laccases into valuable biomolecular platforms on which new functions can be incorporated by directed evolution.

In the next chapter Aceto and Gaudio describe the processes involves in orchid genetics and evolution. This review presents a couple of significant genetic models such as the ABCDE model and MADS-box model which can be used to engineer different varieties of these plants. In chapter 7, Leister et al. present a review on the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana with particular emphasis on the present status of resources and concepts for systematic studies of gene function in A. thaliana. Current perspectives on the utility of loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutants are discussed in light of the genetic and functional redundancy of many A. thaliana genes. In the final chapter by Wani et al., the authors review certain advanced applications of plant genetics, viz. engineering cold-stress tolerance in plants. Numerous physiological and molecular changes occur during cold acclimatization which indicate that the phenomenon of cold resistance is more complex than perceived and involves a number of pathways. This research area presents an interesting avenue for agriculture in temperate regions where the cold climate limits the production of agricultural products.

I hope that the series of chapters in this volume will stimulate readers to learn more about how the genome of living organisms shapes their existence in our world and how it opens up new possibilities for developing untapped resources for the benefit of mankind.

I would like to express my gratitude to all the authors for their excellent contributions. I would also like to thank the entire team of Bentham Science Publishers, particularly Mr. Omer Shafi (Assistant Manager Publications), Mr. Shehzad Naqvi (Senior Manager Publications) and team leader Mr. Mahmood Alam (Director Publications) for their excellent efforts. We are confident that this volume will receive wide appreciation from students and researchers.

Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS
Honorary Life Fellow
Kings College
University of Cambridge
Cambridge
UK

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Atta-ur-Rahman
Kings College
University of Cambridge
Cambridge
UK




Contributor(s):
Alessandro Antonelli
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
University of Pisa, Via Savi, 10, 56126
Pisa
Italy


Anja Schneider
Lehrstuhl für Molekularbiologie der Pflanzen (Botanik), Department Biologie I
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
Germany


Annamaria Franzé
CEINGE-Biotecnologie Avanzate
Naples
Italy
/
Unità di Audiologia, Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Scienze Riproduttive e Odontostomatologiche
Università di Napoli “Federico II”
Naples
Italy


Cordelia Bolle
Lehrstuhl für Molekularbiologie der Pflanzen (Botanik), Department Biologie I
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
Germany


Dario Leister
Lehrstuhl für Molekularbiologie der Pflanzen (Botanik), Department Biologie I
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
Germany


Diana M. Mate
DWI-Leibniz Institute for Interactive Materials, Forckenbeckstraβe 50
52056 Aachen
Germany


Elio Marciano
Unità di Audiologia, Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Scienze Riproduttive e Odontostomatologiche
Università di Napoli “Federico II”
Naples
Italy


Enke Baldini
Department of Experimental Medicine
“Sapienza” University of Rome, Viale dell’Università 30
00185 Rome
Italy


Gabriele Materazzi
Department of Surgical, Medical, Molecular Pathology and Critical Are
University of Pisa
Via Savi, 10, 56126
Pisa
Italy


Gulzar Sanghera
RRS
Punjab Agricultural University
Post Box No. 34 Kapurthala
Punjab, 144601
India


Jennifer Lynn Crutchley
Department of Biochemistry, and Goodman Cancer Research Center
McGill University, 3655 Promenade Sir-William-Osler, Room 815A, Montréal
Québec, H3G1Y6
Canada


Josée Dostie
Department of Biochemistry, and Goodman Cancer Research Center
McGill University, 3655 Promenade Sir-William-Osler, Room 815A, Montréal
Québec, H3G1Y6
Canada


Luciano Gaudio
Department of Biology
University of Naples Federico II,
Napoli
Italy


Merlin G. Butler
Departments of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences and Pediatrics
University of Kansas Medical Center
Kansas City
Kansas
USA


Miguel Alcalde
Department of Biocatalysis
Institute of Catalysis, CSIC, Cantoblanco
28049 Madrid
Spain


N.B. Singh
Department of, Plant Breeding and Genetics, COA, CAU
Imphal
795001, Manipur
India


Paolo Miccoli
Department of Surgical, Medical, Molecular Pathology and Critical Area
University of Pisa
Via Savi, 10, 56126
Pisa
Italy


Poupak Fallahi
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
University of Pisa
Via Savi, 10, 56126
Pisa
Italy


Salvatore Ulisse
Department of Experimental Medicine
“Sapienza”University of Rome, Viale dell’Università 30,
00185 Rome
Italy


Sandra Iossa
CEINGE-Biotecnologie Avanzate
Naples
Italy
/
Istituto di Genetica e Biofisica “A. Buzzati Traverso”, C.N.R.
Naples
Italy


Saroj Kumar Sah
Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Entomology and Plant Pathology
Mississippi State University
MS-39762
USA


Serena Aceto
Department of Biology
University of Naples Federico II
Napoli
Italy


Shabir H. Wani
Division of Genetics and Plant Breeding
SKUAST-K
Srinagar-190025
Jammu and Kashmir
India


Silvia Martina Ferrari1
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
University of Pisa
Via Savi, 10, 56126
Pisa
Italy


Waseem Hussain
Department of Agronomy & Horticulture
University of Nebraska
68583-0915
Lincoln
USA


Xue Qing David Wang
Department of Biochemistry, and Goodman Cancer Research Center
McGill University, 3655 Promenade Sir-William-Osler
Room 815A, Montréal
Québec, H3G1Y6
Canada




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