Mesenchymal Cell Activation by Biomechanical Stimulation and its Clinical Prospects


by

Nahum Rosenberg

DOI: 10.2174/97816810819911160101
eISBN: 978-1-68108-199-1, 2016
ISBN: 978-1-68108-200-4



Recommend this eBook to your Library



The electrical response of cells to mechanical stimulus is known as mechanotransduction. This monograph is a summary of the mechanotra...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i

Michael Soudry

Download Free

Preface

- Pp. iii

Nahum Rosenberg

Download Free

List of Contributors

- Pp. v

Nahum Rosenberg

Download Free

Mechanics of Living Cells - General Aspects

- Pp. 3-12 (10)

Eyal Ginesin, Kamal Hamoud and Nahum Rosenberg

View Abstract Purchase Chapter

Experimental Methods for Mechanical Stimulation of Cells of Mesenchymal Origin

- Pp. 13-22 (10)

Nahum Rosenberg and Reuben Haber

View Abstract Purchase Chapter

Mechanical Stimulation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

- Pp. 23-34 (12)

David Nikomarov and Nahum Rosenberg

View Abstract Purchase Chapter

Bio-Mechanical Stimulation of Skin Fibroblasts

- Pp. 35-48 (14)

Yaron Har-Shai, Isaac Zilinsky, Rei Ogawa and Chenyu Huang

View Abstract Purchase Chapter

Mechanotransduction in Osteoblats

- Pp. 49-57 (9)

Yaron Berkovich, Jacob Shapira and Nahum Rosenberg

View Abstract Purchase Chapter

Mechanotransduction in Chondrocytes

- Pp. 59-64 (6)

Marwan Haddad, Jacob Shapira and Nahum Rosenberg

View Abstract Purchase Chapter

Cellular Molecular Pathways in Distraction Osteogenesis

- Pp. 65-72 (8)

Yoav Leiser and Adi Rachmiel

View Abstract Purchase Chapter

Subject Index

- Pp. 73-75 (3)

Nahum Rosenberg

Download Free

Foreword

During the last two decades there have been many studies demonstrating the responses of cells of mesenchymal origin (osteoblasts, chondrocytes, fibroblasts, etc.) to mechanical stimulation. However, due to the use of various experimental methods, it has become difficult to compare the research data. Many studies implement the variations of the method of cyclic mechanical stimulation via stretchable membranes onto adherent cells, but other methods exist as well. To compare the data from different experimental methods the mechanical stimulation should be characterized by its displacement, frequency and acceleration (or by the wave shape of the applied force), but in most of the studies neither all this information nor even the common stimulation parameters for cells activation are apparent.

The previous data demonstrate that cellular deformation affects the cytoskeleton, which results in the activation of a cascade of secondary messengers that stimulate metabolic or proliferative response, i.e. mechanotransduction pathways. Unfortunately standardized biomechanical protocols for the optimal in vitro mechanical stimulation of cells are lacking. This standardization should provide all the essential biomechanical information, such as an exact specification of a mechanical force applied, and, if it is cyclic, the mechanical profile specifications should be given. Additionally information on the cell deformation is required. If this information will be provided the optimal parameters of the mechanical stimulation will be determined and the presently existing controversy regarding these parameters will be at least partially settled. This will open the opportunity for the future more effective and comparable studies for determination of the intracellular mechanisms involved in cellular mechanotransduction. However presentation of the current data and knowledge, which are derived from different biomechanical experimental methods of the cellular mechanotransduction research, should also contribute to the communication in this expanding research field.

Michael Soudry
Hillel Yafe Medical Center
Hadera
Israel


Preface

Skin, bone and cartilage are the important examples of live tissues that respond to mechanical stimulation and that require it for their metabolic maintenance. The cells in these organs, which are responsible for matrix regeneration and responsive to mechanical stimulation, are, among others, the fibroblasts, the osteocytes (osteoblasts) and the chondrocytes (chondroblasts). All these cells are of the mesenchymal origin and maturate from multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). It was previously shown than MSCs can maturate to one of these cell types when exposed to appropriate media (osteogenic, chondrogenic, etc.) with the addition of mechanical stimulation with the optimal characteristic mechanical parameters.

In this book the authors address the special characteristics of the responses of these types of cells to mechanical stimulation. The process of the cellular mechanical stimulation, mechanotransduction, is partially similar among these cells, but there are also several very important differences in mechanical parameters and cellular pathways. The current knowledge on the characteristic cellular mechanotransduction pathways is expanding. The authors aimed to concentrate on the description of the more investigated pathways, which are characteristic to each cell type.

The book starts with the chapters on general aspects of cellular biomechanics and description of the experimental equipment that is commonly used for the research of cellular mechanotransduction in vitro in two dimensional cultures, especially when the cells are adherent to plastic surfaces. The characteristic pathways of mechanotransduction in MSCs, osteoblasts and osteocytes, chondrocytes and fibroblasts are described in following chapters and eventually a description of clinical implementation of mechanical stimulation is added with emphasis on distraction osteogenesis, involving osteoblast stimulation, and on the skin stretching techniques based on fibroblasts’ stimulation.

The area of cellular mechanotransduction research is still widely open for further research and discoveries. In this book the authors tried to summarize the current knowledge on mechanotransduction in the MSCs and the three mature cell types, which are responsible for the maintenance of tissues that provide body support, cover and movement.

Nahum Rosenberg
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
Rambam - Health Care Campus and Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine
Technion – Israel Institute of Technology
Haifa
Israel

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Nahum Rosenberg
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
Rambam - Health Care Campus and Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine
Technion – Israel Institute of Technology
Haifa
Israel




Contributor(s):
Berkoviz Yaron
Department of Orthopedic Surgery
Rambam Health Care Campus
POB 9602
Haifa, 31096
Israel


Chenyu Huang
Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery
Beijing Tsinghua Changgung Hospital
Medical Center, Tsinghua University
China


Ginesin Eyal
Department of Orthopedic Surgery
Rambam Health Care Campus
POB 9602
Haifa, 31096
Israel


Haber Reuben
Department of Orthopedic Surgery
Rambam Health Care Campus
POB 9602
Haifa, 31096
Israel


Haddad Marwan
Department of Orthopedic Surgery
Rambam Health Care Campus
POB 9602
Haifa, 31096
Israel


Hamoud Kamal
Department of Orthopedic Surgery
Rambam Health Care Campus
POB 9602
Haifa, 31096
Israel


Har-Shai Yaron
Department of Orthopedic Surgery
Rambam Health Care Campus
POB 9602
Haifa, 31096
Israel


Leiser Yoav
Department of Orthopedic Surgery
Rambam Health Care Campus
POB 9602
Haifa, 31096
Israel


Nikomarov David
Department of Orthopedic Surgery
Rambam Health Care Campus
POB 9602
Haifa, 31096
Israel


Rachmiel Adi
Department of Orthopedic Surgery
Rambam Health Care Campus
POB 9602
Haifa, 31096
Israel


Rei Ogawa
Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery
Nippon Medical School
Tokyo
Japan


Rosenberg Nahum
Department of Orthopedic Surgery
Rambam Health Care Campus
POB 9602
Haifa, 31096
Israel


Shapira Jacob
Department of Orthopedic Surgery
Rambam Health Care Campus
POB 9602
Haifa, 31096
Israel


Zilinsky Isaac
The Unit of Plastic Surgery
Carmel Medical Center
, 7 Michal St.
Haifa, 3436212
Israel




Advertisement


Related Journals



Related Books



Webmaster Contact: urooj@benthamscience.org Copyright © 2017 Bentham Science