Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research - HIV

Volume 2

by

Atta-ur-Rahman

DOI: 10.2174/97816810820111150201
eISBN: 978-1-68108-201-1, 2015
ISBN: 978-1-68108-202-8
ISSN: 2468-0397 (Print)
ISSN: 2352-5916 (Online)



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Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research – HIV Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research – ...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Preface

- Pp. i-ii (2)

Atta-ur-Rahman

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iii-iv (2)

Atta-ur-Rahman

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The World of People Living with HIV/AIDS

- Pp. 3-32 (30)

Jucimary Vieira dos Santos and Maria Eugénia Soares Rodrigues Tavares Pina

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Vaginal Mucosal HIV Prep: Fundamental Insights and Practical Considerations

- Pp. 33-165 (133)

Richard B. Pyles, John A. Moss and Marc M. Baum

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The Pivotal Role of Adherence in HIV Prevention and Treatment in the Context of Current Advances in Antiretroviral Drug Research

- Pp. 166-209 (44)

Patou Masika Musumari, Mitchell D. Feldman, Teeranee Techasrivichien, S. Pilar Suguimoto, Adolphe Ndarabu, Christina El-Saaidi, Bhekumusa Wellington Lukhele, Masako Ono-Kihara and Masahiro Kihara

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HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors to Treat AIDS

- Pp. 210-262 (53)

Shengxi Chen

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Long-Acting Antiretroviral Formulations: A New Perspective Aimed to Improve Adherence to HIV Therapy

- Pp. 236-333 (98)

Simona Alexandra Iacob, Diana Gabriela Iacob and Daniela Dastros-Pitei

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Subject Index

- Pp. 334-340 (7)

Atta-ur-Rahman

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Preface

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is responsible for AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) that negatively affects the immune system so that the ability to fight infections and diseases gets weakened. This opens the way for many other life-threatening infectious diseases to affect to the host simultaneously. Currently, there is no cure for HIV/AIDS but treatments have evolved over the years which are much more effective and could improve patients' health conditions considerably. Volume 2 of the book series Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research-HIV presents important recent developments in the form of cutting edge reviews written by experts in the field.

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) uses multiple drugs that can act on special viral targets which in turn maintain the functions of the immune system. Chapter 1 by Vieira dos Santos and Rodrigues Tavares Pina reviews the connections between demographic, economical and attitudinal factors associated with HIV/AIDS. They also discuss the role of antiretroviral therapy to target various stages of the disease in both adults and adolescents.

The genitourinary mucosa is considered as the most common route of HIV transmission. Baum et al. in chapter 2 discuss the tropical microbicides that could be directly administered into vagina for HIV-1 prevention and an overview is presented of the classes of microbicides currently under current investigation. The dosage forms of these drugs along with their associated challenges are also discussed in this review. The authors also discuss the key role of interaction of the microbiome with the host in topical HIV-1 prophylaxis.



The adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs plays an essential role in HIV prevention and treatment. Non-adherence to these drugs may lead to emergence of HIV drug resistance and therapeutic failure. Chapter 3, by Musumari et al., comprehensively reviews the vital role of adherence in HIV prevention and treatment with respect to the recent advances in ARV drug research.

HIV-integrase is a striking target for the development of new anti-HIV drugs and has potent antiviral activity. Shengxi Chen in Chapter 4 describes the structure, function, mechanism, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and clinical use of integrase inhibitors. The author emphasizes on the development of three FDA approved HIV-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs); raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir.

Long-acting antiretroviral (ARV) drugs offer a more convenient option for HIV maintenance therapy and are accountable for better adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). The developing ARV candidates are GSK744 - an Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitor and TMC278 -a Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor. In chapter 5, written by Iacob et al., the results of trials, advantages and disadvantages of these emerging candidates are reviewed.

The 2nd volume of the book series represents the results of a significant amount of work by many eminent researchers and it should prove to be a valuable contribution for researchers who wish to keep up to date with important recent developments in this field. I wish to express my gratitude to the editorial staff, particularly Mr. Mahmood Alam (Director Publication), Mr. Shehzad Naqvi (Senior Manager Publications) and Ms. Fariya Zulfiqar (Assistant Manager Publications) for their hard work and persistent efforts.

Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS
Kings College
University of Cambridge
Cambridge
UK

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Atta-ur-Rahman
Kings College
University of Cambridge
Cambridge
UK




Contributor(s):
Adolphe Ndarabu
Centre Hospitalier Monkole
4804 Ngafani street, Masanga-mbila, Mont-Ngafula, Kinshasa 817 Kinshasa XI
Democratic Republic of Congo


Bhekumusa Wellington Lukhele
Department of Global Health and Socio-epidemiology
Kyoto University School of Public Health
Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501
Japan


Christina El-Saaidi
Department of Global Health and Socio-epidemiology
Kyoto University School of Public Health
Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501
Japan


Daniela Dastros-Pitei
Mundipharma Research International R&D
Cambridge
UK


Diana Gabriela Iacob
Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy
Bucharest
Romania


John A. Moss
Department of Chemistry
Oak Crest Institute of Science
Pasadena
California
United States of America


Jucimary Vieira dos Santos
Faculty of Medicine
Rio Grande do Norte State University
Mossoró, 59607-360
Brazil


Marc M. Baum
Department of Chemistry
Oak Crest Institute of Science
Pasadena
California
United States of America


Maria Eugénia Soares Rodrigues Tavares Pina
Center for Chemical Processes Engineering and Forest Products, (CIEPQPF)
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy
University of Coimbra
3000-548, Coimbra
Portugal


Masahiro Kihara
Department of Global Health and Socio-epidemiology
Kyoto University School of Public Health
Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501
Japan


Masako Ono-Kihara
Department of Global Health and Socio-epidemiology
Kyoto University School of Public Health
Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501
Japan


Mitchell D. Feldman
Department of Medicine
University of California San Francisco
1545 Divisadero, Suite 315
Sans Francisco
CA 94143-0320
USA


Patou Masika Musumari
Department of Global Health and Socio-epidemiology
Kyoto University School of Public Health
Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501
Japan


Richard B. Pyles
Department of Pediatrics
University of Texas Medical Branch
Galveston
Texas
United States of America
/
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
University of Texas Medical Branch
Galveston
Texas
United States of America


S. Pilar Suguimoto
Department of Global Health and Socio-epidemiology
Kyoto University School of Public Health
Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501
Japan


Shengxi Chen
Center for BioEnergetics
Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University
Tempe
Arizona, 85287
USA


Simona Alexandra Iacob
The National Institute of Infectious Diseases "Matei Bals"
Bucharest
Romania


Teeranee Techasrivichien
Department of Global Health and Socio-epidemiology
Kyoto University School of Public Health
Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501
Japan




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