Basic Biology and Clinical Aspects of Inflammation

Book Series: Frontiers in Inflammation

Volume 1

by

Robert F. Diegelmann, Charles E. Chalfant

DOI: 10.2174/97816810822711160101
eISBN: 978-1-68108-227-1, 2016
ISBN: 978-1-68108-228-8
ISSN: 2468-1466 (Print)
ISSN: 2468-1474 (Online)



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Basic Biology and Clinical Aspects of Inflammation provides information about t...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i-ii (2)

Charles N. Serhan

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Preface

- Pp. iii

Robert F. Diegelmann and Charles E. Chalfant

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iv-vi (3)

Robert F. Diegelmann and Charles E. Chalfant

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Introduction to Basic Biology and Clinical Aspects of Inflammation

- Pp. 3-10 (8)

Roger M. Loria and Robert F. Diegelmann

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Cell Mediators of Acute Inflammation

- Pp. 11-25 (15)

Luisa A. DiPietro and Megan E. Schrementi

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Biochemical Mediators of Inflammation and Resolution

- Pp. 26-54 (29)

Jennifer A. Mietla, L. Alexis Hoeferlin, Dayanjan S. Wijesinghe and Charles E. Chalfant

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Wound Healing and Dermatologic Aspects of Inflammation

- Pp. 55-82 (28)

Lisa J. Gould and Mary Elizabeth Hanley

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Metabolic Regulation of Inflammation

- Pp. 83-105 (23)

Chang-An Guo, Laura Bond and James M. Ntambi

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Aging and Inflammation

- Pp. 106-137 (32)

Daipayan Banerjee, Alexander A. Karakashian and Mariana N. Nikolova- Karakashian

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Allergic Inflammation

- Pp. 138-163 (26)

Joshua L. Kennedy and Matthew C. Bell

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Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes

- Pp. 164-179 (16)

Agbor Ndip, Edward B. Jude and Andrew J.M. Boulton

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The Vascular Tree and Heart with Relationship to Inflammation

- Pp. 180-219 (40)

Bruce D. Spiess

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Rheumatoid and Degenerative Arthritis-Associated Inflammation

- Pp. 220-253 (34)

Matthias Geyer, Steffen Gay and Ulf Müller-Ladner

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Inflammation in Oral Diseases

- Pp. 254-291 (38)

Praveen R. Arany

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Intestinal Inflammation and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

- Pp. 292-304 (13)

Chao Li and John F. Kuemmerle

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Neuroinflammation

- Pp. 305-376 (72)

Unsong Oh

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Pharmacotherapy for Inflammatory Processes

- Pp. 377-426 (50)

Graham A. Mackay and Alastair G. Stewart

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Mathematical Modeling of Inflammation

- Pp. 427-450 (24)

Angela M. Reynolds and Rebecca A. Segal

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Network Analysis of Inflammation

- Pp. 451-473 (23)

Tomasz Arodz and Xi Gao

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Subject Index

- Pp. 474-477 (4)

Robert F. Diegelmann and Charles E. Chalfant

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Foreword

In the post-genomic era, understanding inflammation and its intricate mechanisms is the final frontier. While ancient physicians recognized inflammation’s cardinal signs as heat, redness, swelling and pain centuries ago,the cellular and molecular players in this vital inflammatory host response have only been elucidated for the most part in the last century. Today, it’s now well appreciated that uncontrolled inflammation and excessivetissue levels of inflammatory mediators play central roles in the pathogenesis of many widely occurring diseases throughout the body and all its organs. At one time, the study of inflammation and inflammatory diseases was confined to chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, periodontal disease and the like, while today it is commonly appreciated that neurodegenerative diseases, cognitive decline, vascular diseases, asthma, obesity and many other widely occurring diseases involve uncontrolled, recurrent bouts of inflammation. In order for us to gain and harness new approaches to treat these diseases and appreciate the complexity of the inflammatory response, it is essential for students, scientists and health care practitioners to command a detailed appreciation of the cellular and molecular language of the inflammatory response, the mediators and governance of this body defense system.

The acute inflammatory response is protective, many of the cell types, mediators and mechanisms are known today, and the control of self-limited responses and the progression to natural resolution and tissue homeostasis are beginning to be unraveled. As a major defense mechanism, the innate immune response protects from bacterial invasion and is centered on containment and killing of microbes for their elimination from the body. Hence, the interrelationship between infection and inflammation is a battleground with language that needs to be fully decoded and appreciated in order for us to gain advantage in treatment of diseases where inflammation plays a critical component and hopefully translate into protective practices in personalized medicine.

Inflammation and the controlled inflammatory response, namely its resolution, is thus linked to many of life’s processes such as wound healing and aging, while an uncontrolled inflammatory response is viewed today as the instigating mechanism underlying diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases and neuroinflammation and likely many diseases, both sterile injury from within and yet-to-be-described invaders, emphasizing the importance of the inflammatory response and ongoinginflammation as maybe relevant in obesity, metabolic syndrome and aging. The microbiome’s relationship to containment, infection and local tissue inflammation in organs throughout the body remains to be fully decoded, and it is well recognized that the stress of surgery and the local scalpel cut of the surgeon initiate inflammatory responses and potentially (via occlusion of blood vessels with blood reflow)injury from within.

It is within the spirit of widely appreciating these cellular events, processes and mechanisms that the editors, Drs. Diegelmann and Chalfant, have assembled this eBook containing major contributions from an international distinguished panel of experts to present a didactic experience of the basic cell biology as well as clinical aspects of inflammation. The chapters are by authorities and leading investigators and systematically introduce the cellular and molecular initiators and defenders in the acute inflammatory response and go on to include chapters on inflammation in metabolism, aging, allergy, diabetes, cardiovascular, arthritis, oral disease, gastrointestinal and neural inflammation in well-illustrated and clearly presented didactic chapters.

Inflammation when presented in medical school is usually a component of general pathology, or immunology, and in some cases microbiology as well as each of the medical specialties in small bites. Thus, in many respects, the presentation of the innate immune response and its communication to acquired immunity is fragmented in the traditional medical curriculum. This ebook helps to provide, in one succinct presentation, a cohesive view of our multidisciplinary appreciation of inflammation today and how it impacts many disease processes and organs throughout the body.

The editors have also taken care to present current approaches in pharmacotherapy in inflammatory responses as well as the application of mathematical modeling and network analysis to inflammation. These are valuable and can help provide a strong foundation to the readers for appreciating the role of inflammation and its treatment for both personalized and precision medicine. This eBook on Basic Biology and Clinical Aspects of Inflammation should be of wide interest across disciplines to not only practitioners, health care providers and basic medical scientists, but should also be of interest to the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries as well as nutrition and economists, because of the tremendous economic burden of diseases where uncontrolled inflammation is a key culprit. Drs. Diegelmann and Chalfant give us a well-integrated eBook and chapters that will enable the reader to increase our present understanding and gain insight to discover new means to marvel and control this important life process.Inflammation is all!

Charles N. Serhan
Brigham and Women’s Hospital,
Harvard Medical School,
77 Avenue Louis Pasteur (HIM 829)
Boston, MA 02115, USA
cnserhan@zeus.bwh.harvard.edu


Preface

In recent years there have been many exciting advances made in the field of inflammation. State of the art scientific technologies have helped make these advances possible. As underlying cellular and biochemical mechanisms responsible for the inflammatory response are better understood, new therapeutic strategies can be developed to treat the spectrum of clinical problems associated with excessive inflammation.

This educational eBook, “Basic Biology and Clinical Aspects of Inflammation” was developed for a wide audience. Basic scientists, academicians, clinicians, health care regulators, industrial and pharmaceutical scientists as well as the lay public can benefit from the expanse of knowledge presented herein.

To help continue promoting cutting edge scientific research and technology, the Editors and all contributing Authors have agreed to donate their royalties from this eBook to the Wound Healing Foundation (http://www.woundhealingfoundation.org) for young investigator research grants. In addition, we recognize and appreciate Bentham Science Publishers for their generous support and contributions to the Wound Healing Foundation.

DEDICATION:

We dedicate this book to our wonderful wives, Penny and Laura and our loving children, Sarah, Laura, Ryan, Stephen, Scott, Isabella, and Alec.

Robert F. Diegelmann & Charles Chalfant
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center
1101 East Marshall Street
Sanger Hall, room 2-007
Richmond Virginia, 23298-0614
USA
Robert.Diegelmann@vcuhealth.org
cechalfant@vcu.edu

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Robert F. Diegelmann
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center
1101 East Marshall Street, Sanger Hall, room 2-007
Richmond Virginia, 23298-0614
USA


Charles E. Chalfant
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center
1101 East Marshall Street, Sanger Hall, room 2-007
Richmond Virginia, 23298-0614
USA




Contributor(s):
Agbor Ndip
Centre for Endocrinology and Diabetes
Institute for HumanDevelopment, University of Manchester
Manchester
UK
/
Department of Diabetes
Warrington General Hospital
Warrington
UK


Alastair G. Stewart
Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics and Lung Health Research Centre
University of Melbourne
Parkville
Victoria, 3010
Australia


Alexander A. Karakashian
Department of Physiology
University of Kentucky College of Medicine
Lexington
KY
USA


Andrew J.M. Boulton
Centre for Endocrinology and Diabetes
Institute for Human Development
University of Manchester
Manchester
UK
/
Department of Diabetes and Medicine
Manchester Royal Infirmary
Manchester
UK


Angela M. Reynolds
Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics
Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond, Virginia
USA


Bruce D. Spiess
Johnson Institute for Critical Care research, Department of Anesthesiology
Emergency Medicine, VCU Medical Center
Richmond
Virginia
USA


Chang-An Guo
Department of Biochemistry
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Madison
WI
USA


Chao Li
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Internal Medicine
VCU Program in Enteric Neuromuscular Sciences, Medical College of Virginia Campus
Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond
VA
USA
/
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine
University at Buffalo
Richmond
Virginia, 23298
USA
/
Research and Development
Hunter Holmes McGuire Veterans Administration Medical Center
University at Buffalo
Richmond
Virginia, 23249
USA


Charles E. Chalfant
The VCU Massey Cancer Center
Virginia Commonwealth University
University at Buffalo
Richmond
Virginia, 23298
USA
/
VCU Johnson Center
Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond
Virginia, 23298
USA
/
VCU Institute of Molecular Medicin
Richmond
Virginia, 23298
USA


Daipayan Banerjee
Department of Physiology
University of Kentucky College of Medicine
Lexington
KY
USA


Dayanjan S. Wijesinghe
Department of Pharmacotherapy & Outcomes Sciences
Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine
Richmond
Virginia, 23298
USA
/
VCU Johnson Center
Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond
Virginia, 23298
USA


Edward B. Jude
Centre for Endocrinology and Diabetes
Institute for Human Development, University of Manchester
Manchester
UK
/
Department of Diabetes
Tameside General Hospital
Ashton-Unde--Lyne
UK


Graham A. Mackay
Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics and Lung Health Research Centre
University of Melbourne
Parkville
Victoria, 3010
Australia


James M. Ntambi
Department of Biochemistry
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Madison
WI
USA
/
Department of Nutritional Sciences
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Madison
WI
USA


Jennifer A. Mietla
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine
Richmond
Virginia, 23298
USA


John F Kuemmerle
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Internal Medicine
VCU Program in Enteric Neuromuscular Sciences
Medical College of Virginia Campus
Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond
Virginia
USA


Joshua L. Kennedy
Departments of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics
Division of Allergy and Immunology
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Little Rock
AR
USA


L. Alexis Hoeferlin
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond
Virginia, 23298
USA


Laura Bond
Department of Biochemistry
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Madison
WI
USA


Lisa J. Gould
Wound Recovery & Hyperbaric Medicine Center
Kent Hospital
Warwick
Rhode Island
USA


Luisa A. DiPietro
Center for Wound Healing and Tissue Regeneration
University of Illinois at Chicago
Chicago
IL
USA


Mariana N. Nikolova-Karakashian
Department of Physiology
University of Kentucky College of Medicine
Lexington
KY
USA


Mary Elizabeth Hanley
Wound Recovery & Hyperbaric Medicine Center
Kent Hospital
Warwick
Rhode Island
USA


Matthew C. Bell
Departments of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Immunology
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Little Rock
AR
USA


Matthias Geyer
Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Internal Medicine and Rheumatology
Kerckhoff-Klinik, Justus-Liebi--University Gieβen
Bad Nauheim
Germany


Megan E. Schrementi
Department of Biological Sciences
DePaul University
Chicago, IL
USA


Praveen R. Arany
Oral Biology, School of Dental Medicine
University at Buffalo
New York
USA


Rebecca A. Segal
Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics
Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond, Virginia
USA


Robert F. Diegelmann
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and the VCU Johnson Center
Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond, Virginia
USA


Roger M. Loria
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond, Virginia
USA


Steffen Gay
Department of Rheumatology, Center of Experimental Rheumatology
University of Zürich
Zürich
Switzerland


Tomasz Arodz
Department of Computer Science, School of Engineering
Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond, VA
USA


Ulf Müller-Ladner
Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Internal Medicine and Rheumatology
Kerckhoff-Klinik, Justus-Liebi--University Gieβen
Bad Nauheim
Germany


Unsong Oh
Department of Neurology
Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond, VA
USA


Xi Gao
Department of Computer Science, School of Engineering
Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond, VA
USA




Reviews

Endorsement:

“This is an excellent series on inflammation encompassing a range of chapters on mediators, wound healing, metabolism, bowel disease, arthritis, the nervous system, and pharmacotherapy. It is an e-book with the permanence of traditional books and the immediacy of editorial comments, written by experts with the rest of us in mind. The authors have agreed to donate their royalties to the Wound Healing Foundation to foster research by young investigators. What better value; buy it!”

Gabriel Makhlouf, MD
Professor Emeritus, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center
Richmond, Virginia, USA

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