Stem Cells between Regeneration and Tumorigenesis


by

Monica Neagu, Cristiana Tanase

DOI: 10.2174/97816810833151160101
eISBN: 978-1-68108-331-5, 2016
ISBN: 978-1-68108-332-2



Recommend this eBook to your Library



Experts in the field of cellular biology have shown that the reactivation of pluripotency inherent in all cells can allow us to reprog...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i-ii (2)

Giovanni Pellacani

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Preface

- Pp. iii-v (3)

Monica Neagu and Cristiana Tanase

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List of Contributors

- Pp. vi-viii (3)

Monica Neagu and Cristiana Tanase

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Stem Cells in Hematopoietic Processes and Therapy Tools

- Pp. 3-36 (34)

Siqi Chen, Qiang Huang, Qing Li, Yawei Liu and Zhong Wang

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Epithelial Oral Stem Cells

- Pp. 37-62 (26)

Pieter J. Slootweg and Sabina Zurac

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Skin Stem Cells in Cutaneous Wound Healing and Tumorigenesis

- Pp. 63-105 (43)

Constantin Caruntu, Daniel Boda, Ana Caruntu and Caterina Longo

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Stem Cells in Neurodegeneration

- Pp. 106-132 (27)

Ana-Maria Enciu

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Cancer Stem Cells in Brain Tumorigenesis

- Pp. 133-171 (39)

Maria Linda Cruceru and Adrian Claudiu Popa

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Adult Pituitary Stem Cells

- Pp. 172-186 (15)

Ancuta Augustina Gheorghisan-Galateanu

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Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Similarities and Differences

- Pp. 187-201 (15)

Simona Olimpia Dima, Dana Cucu, Nicolae Bacalbasa, Valeria Tica and Irinel Popescu

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Immunogenicity of Stem Cell in Tumorigenesis Versus Regeneration

- Pp. 202-234 (33)

Monica Neagu and Carolina Constantin

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Current Proteomic Studies for New Concept in Stem Cell Biology

- Pp. 235-280 (46)

Cristiana Pistol Tanase, Elena Codrici, Ionela Daniela Popescu, Simona Mihai, Laura Necula and Radu Albulescu

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Nano and Microtechnology for Monitoring Stem Cell Differentiation

- Pp. 281-320 (40)

Larisa-Emilia Cheran, Alin Cheran, Andreea-Roxana Lupu and Traian Popescu

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Subject Index

- Pp. 321-322 (2)

Monica Neagu and Cristiana Tanase

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Foreword

Crucial findings in research and clinical application results have proved stem cell to be endowed with dual characteristics, on one hand exploited for beneficial regeneration processes and source of uncontrolled tumoral proliferation, on the other.

Statistics predicts that there will be over 20 million new cancer cases worldwide by the end of 2014, because the incidence of major cancers and population growth are steadily increasing. Hence we will be facing 56% more cancer cases diagnosed in 2030 in comparison to 2012 [1, 2].

In contrast to cancer world-wide statistics, where there are clear and accurate statistics, the figures for tissue regeneration domain are more on the economic side. Therefore the global tissue engineering and regeneration market is estimated to $20.8 billion in 2014 and will triple in 2019 [3].

In this global image of human diseases, stem cells are walking a thin thread, balancing two competing ideas: one is stem cell as main tumorigenesis player and the other is stem cells as the crucial regeneration trigger. Between these two sides of the barricade stands the book that I am kindly inviting you to decipher.

Almost all of the chapters are elaborating on issues that stem cells are endowed with. Preserving the genetic information and retaining the proliferative potential of the tissue in which these cells reside are sustained by their capacity to self-renew and the ability to differentiate into different cell types. Stem cells have a long life span, slow cycling, but their quiescence may turn into high proliferation ability when exposed to certain stimuli. Various factors, including the ones resident in their niche can influence the fate of stem cells.

You will discover the latest up-dates in hematopoietic stem cells, cancer stem cells in oral pathology, stem cells that are involved in skin’s regeneration and tumorigenesis, in neurodegeneration and brain tumours, in endocrine pathology, how the immune system controls stem cells, the proteomics behind these cells and the latest technologies involved in stem cells identification.

The book raises its voice in the chorus of publications that would enhance the information regarding stem cells development as therapy approaches in precision medicine.




Giovanni Pellacani
Department of Dermatology,
University of Modena
Modena MO, Italy


[1] Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 2013.

[2] Bray F, Jemal A, Grey N, et al. Global cancer transitions according to the Human Development Index (2008-2030): a population-based study. Lancet Oncol 2012; 13:790-801

[3] Available at: http://www.reportlinker.com/p02313354-summary/Tissue-Engineering-and- Regeneration-Technologies-and-Global-Markets.html


Preface

"Dream, then think, act, and pray."

Professor YAMAMURA

The proposed book will enrich the previous publications regarding stem cell, by promoting information in two research/clinical renewable areas, such as regeneration and tumorigenesis. Recent information gathered both from research and clinical application proved stem cell to have a “Janus face” characteristics, on one hand exploited for beneficial regeneration processes and source of uncontrolled tumoral proliferation, on the other. Therefore, these cells while used in experimental regeneration they can induce unwanted tumorigenesis pathways.

In this respect, signal transduction, stem cell markers, immune-related processes, “omics” technologies as up-dated identification, as well as pharmacological trends will emphasize the relationship between research and clinical behaviour of this controversy.

This book is emerging from the need to create a clear image regarding the complex mechanisms governing the involvement of stem cell in both regeneration and tumorigenesis.

The giants of cellular biology, have shown that the reawakening of pluripotency inherent in all cells have challenged forever our notions of cellular identity. The implications of the new reprogramming paradigm in biomedicine is steadily enhancing our understanding of cell differentiation and prospects for cellular therapies and in vivo regeneration.

The multi-authored book that we propose focuses specifically on various approaches in terms of organ and specific pathways that trigger the two opposite ways that a stem cell can follow. By definition, a stem cell has both self-renewal and multi-potentiality abilities. For this unique dual capacity, stem cells interpret signalling pathways in specialized ways. Adult stem cell for the treatment of damaged or diseased tissues relies on the ability of stem cells to produce paracrine factors that have a trophic effect on existing tissue cells, improving their functional capacity and develops the complex process of regeneration. On the other side of the barricade, the notion of cancer stem cells gained prominence in recent years but whether they are only the initiators and/or perpetuator of neoplasia, is still a matter of intense debate. Local factors from the microenvironment (niche) can sustain the self-renewal potential and possibly guide towards multiple stem cell populations.

The chapters will follow the balance between regeneration and tumorigenesis focusing several tissue and systems types: neuro-, haemato-, oro-, dermato-, digestive, endocrine domain. Chapters that focus on the immune processes that regulate and control the stem cell duality and state of the art identification omics technologies and pharmacological approaches. This viewpoint will have as central pillar the stem cell and its capacity to be main target for solving system medicine issues.

This e-book begins with the chapter elaborated by Chen et al. showing that the discovery of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) ushered in a new era in stem cell and life science research. The therapeutic benefits of HSCs have long been recognized; as bone marrow transplants have saved many lives, and with an increasing understanding of HSC biology and its translation to the clinic, studies of HSCs will continue benefit the health of humans and our curiosity of life in general.

The chapter elaborated by Slootweg and Zurac focuses on the epithelial stem cells in oral mucosa. Normal epithelial stem cells are characterized, their location, methods of identification and stemness markers are presented. The concept of cancer stem cells in oral cancer, their origin and markers are discussed along with cancer stem cells niche and the interference with treatment. The chapter discuss the role of oral stem cells in oral mucosa wound repair.

The chapter dedicated to skin stem cells elaborated by Caruntu et al. highlights the main characteristics of processes like regeneration and tumorigenesis in skin. The chapter describes the skin regeneration pathways and it elaborates on an interesting link regarding regeneration triggering tumorigenesis in cutaneous tissue. Stem cells that can trigger non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers are described in separate sections.

The chapter focusing on adult pituitary stem cells elaborated by Gheorghișan-Galateanu shows the recent reports of potential populations of stem cells in the pituitary. The nature of pituitary stem cells remains a matter of debate. The variety of markers and approaches used to identify pituitary progenitors and stem cells makes it difficult to compare results and integrate the findings.

There are two chapters that focus on stem cells in brain. One chapter elaborated by Enciu shows the neuroregeneration of mammalian brain, where a functional stem cell niche and proper molecular cues is needed. Neural stem cells have been initially considered, as a putative source for lost neurons, but in terms of cognitive rescue, the results have been disappointing. The chapter discusses the regenerative potential of stem cells therapy in the modified cellular and molecular context of the aged brain.

The other chapter focusing on brain, developed by Cruceru and Popa presents a quick view of the entangled signaling pathways involved in the cancer stem cells in brain tumors with aggressive behavior such as glioblastoma, presenting possible targets for future personalized therapies with improved outcome.

The chapter that brings data regarding the main issues triggered by the immune response in stem cell approaches is elaborated by Neagu and Constantin. The chapter characterizes the immunogenicity of stem cells, where major histocompatibility expression is the immune mould that can drive toward regeneration or tumorigenesis. The chapter shows the processes that are involved in stem cells modulating the immune system elements. Immune cells are important players for stem cell differentiation in both regeneration and tumorigenesis processes.

New proteomic insights in this domain are elaborated by Tanase et al. showing the studies on stem cells and protein interactions using proteomics approaches. Development of stem cell approaches has evolved in the post-genomic era and the implementation of proteomic applications represent the great challenge. Current proteomics studies of stem cell signaling pathway can lead to the discovery of molecular mechanisms that govern cell-cell interaction and/or with stem cell niche.

The last chapter elaborated by Larisa-Emilia Cheran et al. gives an overview of the new micro- and nano-technologies designed to monitor stem cell differentiation in the context of their potential applications in disease modeling, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, as well as drug screening and toxicology.

The reader will gain a good insight on the complexity and controversy surrounding the “stem cell paradigms”, namely the dual stem cell behaviour, regeneration versus tumorigenesis. Intimate processes like stem cells promoting the maintenance of other stem cells, background for optimization of tailored therapy intending the close collaboration between bench and bedside will be the crucial target in personalized medicine.

Monica Neagu and Cristiana Tanase
“Victor Babes” National Institute of Pathology
Titu Maiorescu” University, Faculty of Medicine
Romania

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Monica Neagu


Cristiana Tanase




Contributor(s):
Adrian Claudiu Popa
Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy
Bucharest
Romania
/
Army Centre for Medical Research
Bucharest
Romania


Alin Cheran
Ross University School of Medicine
New Jersey
USA


Ana Caruntu
“Dan Theodorescu” Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Hospital
Bucharest
Romania


Ana-Maria Enciu
Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy
Bucharest
Romania
/
V.Babes National Institute of Pathology
Bucharest
Romania


Ancuta Augustina Gheorghisan-Galateanu
Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology and Histology
“Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy
Bucharest
Romania
/
“C.I.Parhon” National Institute of Endocrinology
Bucharest
Romania


Andreea-Roxana Lupu
Immunobiology Laboratory
“Victor Babeş” National Institute of Pathology
Bucharest
Romania


Carolina Constantin
Immunobiology Laboratory
“Victor Babeş” National Institute of Pathology
Bucharest
Romania


Caterina Longo
Dermatology and Skin Cancer Unit
Arcispedale S Maria Nuova
Reggio Emilia
Italy


Constantin Caruntu
Immunology Department
“Victor Babes” National Institute of Pathology
Bucharest
Romania
/
Department of Physiology
“Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy
Bucharest
Romania


Cristiana Pistol Tanase
“Victor Babes” National Institute of Pathology
Biochemistry-Proteomics Department
Bucharest
Romania
/
Faculty of Medicine
“Titu Maiorescu” University
Bucharest
Romania


Dana Cucu
“Dan Setlacec” Center of General Surgery and Liver Transplantation
Fundeni Clinical Institute
Bucharest
Romania
/
The Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biophysics, Faculty of Biology
University of Bucharest
Bucharest
Romania


Daniel Boda
Dermatology Research Laboratory
“Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy
Bucharest
Romania


Elena Codrici
“Victor Babes” National Institute of Pathology
Biochemistry-Proteomics Department
Bucharest
Romania


Ionela Daniela Popescu
“Victor Babes” National Institute of Pathology
Biochemistry-Proteomics Department
Bucharest
Romania


Irinel Popescu
“Dan Setlacec” Center of General Surgery and Liver Transplantation
Fundeni Clinical Institute
Bucharest
Romania


Larisa-Emilia Cheran
Department of Chemistry
University of Toronto
Toronto
Ontario
Canada


Laura Necula
“Victor Babes” National Institute of Pathology
Biochemistry-Proteomics Department
Bucharest
Romania
/
“Stefan S. Nicolau”
Institute of Virology, Cellular and Molecular Pathology
Bucharest
Romania


Maria Linda Cruceru
Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy
Bucharest
Romania


Monica Neagu
Immunobiology Laboratory
“Victor Babeş” National Institute of Pathology
Bucharest
Romania
/
Faculty of Biology
University of Bucharest
Bucharest
Romania


Nicolae Bacalbasa
“Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy
Bucharest
Romania


Pieter J Slootweg
Department of Pathology
Radboud University Medical Centre Nijmegen
Netherlands


Qiang Huang
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Sun Yat-Sen University
Guangzhou
China
/
Centre for Cellular & Structural biology
Sun Yat-Sen University
Guangzhou
China


Qing Li
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Sun Yat-Sen University
Guangzhou
China
/
Centre for Cellular & Structural biology
Sun Yat-Sen University
Guangzhou
China


Radu Albulescu
“Victor Babes” National Institute of Pathology
Biochemistry-Proteomics Department
Bucharest
Romania
/
Faculty of Medicine
“Titu Maiorescu” University
Bucharest
Romania
/
National Institute for Chemical Pharmaceutical R&D
Bucharest
Romania


Sabina Zurac
Department of Pathology
University of Medicine and Pharmacy Carol Davila, Colentina University Hospital
Bucharest
Romania


Simona Mihai
“Victor Babes” National Institute of Pathology
Biochemistry-Proteomics Department
Bucharest
Romania


Simona Olimpia Dima
“Dan Setlacec” Center of General Surgery and Liver Transplantation
Fundeni Clinical Institute
Bucharest
Romania


Siqi Chen
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Sun Yat-Sen University
Guangzhou
China
/
Centre for Cellular & Structural biology
Sun Yat-Sen University
Guangzhou
China


Traian Popescu
National Institute of Materials Physics
Magurele
Romania


Valeria Tica
“Dan Setlacec” Center of General Surgery and Liver Transplantation
Fundeni Clinical Institute
Bucharest
Romania


Yawei Liu
Health Division of Guard Bureau
General Staff Department of PLA
Beijing
China


Zhong Wang
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Sun Yat-Sen University
Guangzhou
China
/
Centre for Cellular & Structural biology
Sun Yat-Sen University
Guangzhou
China




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