Pain: Causes, Concerns and Consequences


by

Puneetpal Singh, Monica Singh

DOI: 10.2174/97816810837111160101
eISBN: 978-1-68108-371-1, 2016
ISBN: 978-1-68108-372-8



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Indexed in: EBSCO.

Pain is a significant medical problem, as it is a factor in many diseases and debilitating conditions. The processing of pain in the b...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Preface

- Pp. i-iii (3)

Puneetpal Singh and Monica Singh

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iv

Puneetpal Singh and Monica Singh

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Pain: A Clinician's Journey

- Pp. 3-16 (14)

David S. Basser

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Functional Brain Circuitry in Central Post-stroke Pain

- Pp. 17-39 (23)

Andrew Chih Wei Huang, Hsiang-Chin Lu and Bai Chuang Shyu

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The Role of Psychological Factors in Cardiac and Non-Cardiac Chest Pain

- Pp. 40-72 (33)

Masoumali Masoumi, Mozhgan Saeidi and Saeid Komasi

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Genetic Explorations of Pain

- Pp. 73-110 (38)

Harjot Dhillon and Puneetpal Singh

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Non-Pharmacological Treatment Options for Coexisting Chronic Non-Cancer Pain and Substance Use Disorder

- Pp. 111-125 (15)

Peter Przekop

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MicroRNAs: The Tiny Robust Players Unraveling the Multifaceted Channels of Pain

- Pp. 126-160 (35)

Yogita K. Adlakha

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The Ameliorative Potential of 7-Hydroxy- 4-Methylcoumarin in Acrylamide Induced Neuropathic Pain via Improving of Mitochondrial Function in Rat

- Pp. 161-187 (27)

Jaspreet Kaur, Arunachalam Muthuraman and Muthusamy Ramesh

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Subject Index

- Pp. -188 (198)

Puneetpal Singh and Monica Singh

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Preface

The present book is about pain, a vital part but an unwelcome guest in the corridors of human health. If we count the toll of human sufferings, the pain is the forefront perpetrator. It is metastasizing and has tethered directly or indirectly to almost every disease or morbid condition. Its realisation is different by anaesthesiologist on pre-operative condition, neurologist on migraine or headache, rheumatologist on arthritis and oncologist on cancer, however, complex and distinctive appraisals are proclaimed by different patients.

Scientist have exposed constellation of factors and started hunting down all those culprits which contribute but are still absconding from the scene of pain. The physiological, biochemical and genetic role in human pain has been delved, discussed and disseminated in clinical literature but many concerns are still to be unravelled.

This compendium, “Pain: Causes, Concerns and Consequences” is aimed to assimilate and harness scholastic knowledge from the scientists and researchers of high repute, who have been working in this domain of pain research. This treatise has positively brought state of the art knowledge in relation to prognosis and prophylactic measures of pain, which we surmise to be a valuable volume.

In the first chapter Dr. David shares his experiences of understanding pain as a clinician. He trudges along his memory lane and discusses the interdependence of clinician and researcher in the search of indepth perception of explained and unexplained pain. His professional journey as a special orthodontist proffers a novel way of tackling pain by employing not only classical but psychological ways and means.

Dr. Bai Chuang Shyu discussed that central post -stroke pain (CPSP) involves three hypotheses: central disinhibtion, central imbalance and central sensitisation, which do not conflict with each other.

He puts forth that, although, neural substrates of CPSP are diverse, but cortical pain matrix (contra lateral somatosensory cortex, bilateral mid and posterior insula, interior insula and posterior cingulate cortex) regulates pain processing in CPSP. He concludes that [14C] iodoantipyrine (IAP) data from the animal model of CPSP with lesions of ventrobasal complex of right thalamus indicate that during pain, significantly higher activation occurs in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), interior cingulate cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala and periaqueductalgray (PAG). He proposes that for, CPSP this novel idea of checking [14C] IAP may be used for pharmacological and non- pharmacological interventions of CPSP.

Third chapter emphasises the psychological issues in cardiac and non-cardiac chest pain. In emergency departments and intensive cardiac care units (ICCU), the most common symptoms of these patients are psychological stress, fear and anxiety. If remain unaddressed, these symptoms may lead to worst outcomes with severe ramifications. Psychotherapy especially cognitive and behavioural interventions can substantially lower the pain developed as a consequence of psychological distress.

Fourth chapter presents the facts and figures of several genes that participate in different phases of pain. Pain being a complex manifestation is perceived, processed and promulgated first and foremost through genetic endowment of the individual whereas, physiology, psychology, sociology and environment, later appear on the scene. It is acknowledged in this chapter that the idea of personal medicine for managing pain, based on the genetic profiling of the individual is possible in near future.

Dr Przekop writes about the causes and concerns of chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) especially when coexisted with substance use disorder (SUD). He professes that, in formulating the treatment plan for CNCP and SUD the concomitant factors of one’s psychology, sociology and physiology should be taken care of, so that the patient becomes an active participant in the treatment of his or her chronic pain.

Fifth chapter emerges out from a query that whether microRNAs (miRNAs) play role in pain pathophysiology and targeting them can be useful in managing pain. The chapter diligently explores the role and relevance of miRNAs in anti-nociceptive therapeutics. Apropos to the query, the chapter reveales that understanding the miRNA expression profile in almost every component of somatosensory system from peripheral neurons to higher central system, plays promising role in modulation of pain perception.

Dr Muthuraman investigates the analgesic potential of 7-hydoxy-4-methyl-coumarin (HMC) in acrylamide induced pain in rats. By conducting acrylamide induced nociceptive pain sensation and biochemical estimation, he documents that pre-treatment of rats with HMC and cyclosporine; ameliorate the acrylamide induced changes in biochemical and behavioural parameters in dose dependent manner.

He suggests that this ameliorative effect of HMC is because of its antioxidant, anti-lipid peroxidative, calcium ion regulatory and mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitory action.

We are deeply indebted to Ms. ShalluKhullar for her extended help in style editing of the book. We extend our heartfelt gratitude to Mrs. Humaira Hashmi, Editor In-charge, eBook department and Editorial Manager Publications, Ms. Hira Aftab, Incharge Publications, Ms. Maria Baig, Manager Publications and especially Mr.MahmoodAlam, Director Publications, Bentham Science publishers for their kind support, encouragement and help.

Dr. Puneetpal Singh
Department of Human Genetics
Punjabi University, Patiala
India
&
Dr. Monica Singh
Department of Human Genetics
Punjabi University, Patiala
India

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Puneetpal Singh


Monica Singh




Contributor(s):
Andrew Chih Wei Huang
Department of Psychology
Fo Guang University
Yilan, Taiwan
Republic of China


Arunachalam Muthuraman
Neuropharmacology Division, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Akal College of Pharmacy & technical Education, Mastuana Sahib
Sangrur 148002, Punjab
India


Bai Chuang Shyu
Institute of Biomedical Sciences
Academia Sinica
Taipei, Taiwan
Republic of China


David S. Basser
53 Bennetts Road Mountain River
Tasmania 7109
Australia


Harjot Dhillon
Department of Human Genetics
Punjabi University
Patiala
India


Hsiang-Chin Lu
Institute of Biomedical Sciences
Academia Sinica
Taipei, Taiwan
India


Jaspreet Kaur
Neuropharmacology Division, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Akal College of Pharmacy & technical Education, Mastuana Sahib
Sangrur 148002, Punjab
India


Masoumali Masoumi
Professor of Cardiac Surgery
Bistoon Hospital
Kermanshah
Iran


Mozhgan Saeid
Cardiac Rehabilitation Center, Imam Ali Hospital
Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences
Kermanshah
Iran


Muthusaamy Ramesh
Neuropharmacology Division, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Akal College of Pharmacy & technical Education, Mastuana Sahib
Sangrur 148002, Punjab
India


Peter Przekop
Betty Ford Center, Rancho Mirage, CA 92270, USA
Departments of Pediatrics, Neurology, and Psychiatry. Loma Linda University School of Medicine
Loma Linda, CA 92350
USA


Puneetpal Singh
Department of Human Genetics
Punjabi University
Patiala
India


Saeid Komasi
Cardiac Rehabilitation Center, Imam Ali Hospital
Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences
Kermanshah
Iran


Yogita K. Adlakha
Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
National Brain Research Centre
Manesar-122051
India




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