The Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) – Production and Research


by

Giorgio A. Presicce

DOI: 10.2174/97816810841761170101
eISBN: 978-1-68108-417-6, 2017
ISBN: 978-1-68108-418-3



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Indexed in: EBSCO.

This handbook aims at focusing on the husbandry of the common water buffalo, (Bubalis bubalis). The book covers a broad range of topic...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i-ii (2)

AK Misra

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Preface

- Pp. iii

Giorgio A. Presicce

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iv-vi (3)

Giorgio A. Presicce

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River and Swamp Buffaloes: History, Distribution and their Characteristics

- Pp. 3-31 (29)

Claro N. Mingala, Marvin A. Villanueva and Libertado C. Cruz

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The Cytogenetics of the Water Buffalo

- Pp. 32-49 (18)

Alessandra Iannuzzi and Leopoldo Iannuzzi

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Molecular Genetics and Selection in Dairy Buffaloes: The Italian Situation

- Pp. 50-68 (19)

Alfredo Pauciullo and Leopoldo Iannuzzi

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Animal - Environment Interaction: Buffalo Behavior and Welfare

- Pp. 69-104 (36)

Fabio Napolitano, Corrado Pacelli, Ada Braghieri, Fernando Grasso and Giuseppe De Rosa

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Thermal Balance in the Buffalo Species

- Pp. 105-144 (40)

Ramesh C. Upadhyay and Narongsak Chaiyabutr

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Feed Resources, Rumen Fermentation, Manipulation and Production in Swamp Buffalo: A Review

- Pp. 145-179 (35)

Metha Wanapat, V. Chanthakhoun, R. Pilajun and P. Khejornsart

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Protein Digestion and Metabolism in Buffalo

- Pp. 180-195 (16)

Vo Thi Kim Thanh and Egil Robert Orskov

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Influence of Seasonality on Buffalo Production

- Pp. 196-224 (29)

Luigi Zicarelli

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Buffalo Dairy Production: A Review

- Pp. 225-261 (37)

Marco A. Zava and Marina Sansinena

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Buffalo Milk Characteristics and By-Products

- Pp. 262-297 (36)

Marco A. Zava and Marina Sansinena

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Parasitological Scenario of Buffalo Farms in Central and Southern Italy: A Review

- Pp. 298-312 (15)

Antonio Bosco, Laura Rinaldi, Maria Paola Maurelli and Giuseppe Cringoli

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Folliculogenesis and Ovarian Physiology Applied to Reproductive Biotechnologies in Buffaloes

- Pp. 313-319 (7)

Antonio Bosco, Laura Rinaldi, Maria Paola Maurelli, Giuseppe Cringoli and Pietro Sampaio Baruselli

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Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer in the Buffalo Species

- Pp. 340-373 (34)

Gianluca Neglia and Giovanna Bifulco

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Applied Reproductive Technologies in the Buffalo Species

- Pp. 374-433 (60)

Bianca Gasparrini

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Buffalo Cloning and Transgenesis

- Pp. 434-472 (39)

Gautam Kumar Deb, Rangsun Parnpai and Il Keun Kong

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Subject Index

- Pp. 473-483 (11)

Giorgio A. Presicce

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Foreword

Buffaloes are members of the kingdom Animalia, phylum Chordata, class mammalian, order Artiodactyla and family Bovidae. They are further classified into two main species, the African wild buffalo (Syncerus) and the Asian buffalo (Bubalus). The Asian buffalo is further classified into the river (Bubalus bubalis) and swamp type (Bubalus carabensis) species. The study related to their origins indicate that swamp buffaloes may have originated in China and were domesticated about 4,000 years ago, while the river type may have originated from India some 5,000 years ago. Thus, the buffalo has been domesticated more recently as compared to Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle, both domesticated ~10,000 years ago.

According to the FAO, the total population of buffaloes in the world during 2013 was 193.8 million. Asia alone accounts for the majority of heads, 187.9 million buffaloes that constitute 96.96 % of the total population. Because of its usefulness, the buffalo has been moved to Africa (4.2 million; 2.17%), America (1.34 million; 0.71%), Europe (0.43 million; 0.22%) and Oceania (210 numbers), and it is becoming popular in many non-buffalo rearing countries of these subcontinents. India possesses the largest number (109.4 million: 56.4%) and most of the best breeds of buffaloes (such as Murrah, Nili-Ravi, Banni, Mehsana, Bhadavari, Jafarabadi, Surti etc.).

Buffaloes are very important animals in Asian farming with milk, meat and hides as their major contribution to the zoo-economy, together with other forms of contribution within field-work such as pumping water, ploughing, planting and cultivation of crops, puddling of rice fields, hauling carts to carry various materials and people, thrash grains and crush suger canes, etc. Buffaloes are also used for social and cultural events, sports and religious purposes. It contributes to about 55% of the milk produced in India and about 10% of the total global milk production. Buffalo milk has a high level of nutrients, and many consumers prefer it because of its white color, high fat content and flavor. Similarly, buffalo meat is amazingly tender, juicy with a slightly sweet flavor and it is lower in fat, calories and cholesterol than cattle beef, and higher in protein. The buffalo has an intrinsic ability to efficiently convert poor quality forages and crop residues of marginal areas into high quality milk and meat and it has exceptionally long productive life; in fact a healthy female may have as many as nine to ten lactations. Because of its colour and immense economic value, the buffalo is often called “Black Gold", and today more human beings depend on them than on any other domestic animal.

Depending on the geographical situations and the purpose for which they are used, buffaloes are managed differently all over the world. Slowly buffalo rearing is changing from the backyard to commercial enterprises and is following the path of cattle industry. Buffalo has an excellent potential for milk and meat production, and therefore development and application of simple technologies to overcome deficiencies in breeding, nutrition, healthcare, management and welfare and simultaneously judicious application of current technologies such as genomics, proteomics, reproductive biotechnologies, nanotechnology, bioinformatics etc., may lead to its faster development.

Scientific literature on buffaloes has mushroomed in the last two decades, covering various aspects of buffalo production. In order to maximize productive and reproductive performances, newly developed technologies have been implemented in buffalo farming and management, and in some instances with excellent results. This book has 15 chapters, from the contribution of selected renowned educators / scientists from different buffalo rearing countries, dealing with, the most recent advances ranging from reproductive physiology to nutrition, welfare, milk production and genetics. The book is aimed at magnifying the importance of this species in the world, and highlights areas of research that need to be explored urgently.

I am sure this book will be a valuable reference for researchers, policy experts, professionals, and above all, educators as well as under-graduate and post-graduate students interested in the bubaline species.

Prof. AK Misra
Vice-Chancellor
Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences University
Seminary Hills
Nagpur-440 001
Maharashtra, India


Preface

Scientific literature on buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) has skyrocketed in the last two decades, ranging from production to reproduction issues. Buffaloes have played an instrumental role in so-called emerging countries of the Asian continent, especially thanks to their intrinsic ability to convert poor quality forages and crop residues of marginal areas, into high quality milk and meat. A special focus of interest has been addressed from researchers to the river subspecies, being the most productive across countries of the European as well as the Asian continents. In fact, in some countries, the river buffalo has shown over the years, an increasing trend in the number of available heads, whereas in others, swamp buffaloes have decreased dramatically. In order to maximize productive and reproductive performances, newly developed technologies have been implemented in buffalo farming and management, and in some instances with excellent results. This book, presenting the most recent advances in buffalo production and research, aims at magnifying the importance of this species in the world and at highlighting areas of research still in need to be more deeply explored.

Giorgio A. Presicce
ARSIAL – Regione Lazio,
Rome,
Italy

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Giorgio A. Presicce
ARSIAL, Regione Lazio, Via R. Lanciani, 38 - 00161
Rome
Italy




Contributor(s):
Pietro Sampaio BARUSELLI
Departamento de Reprodução Animal, FMVZ-USP
São Paulo, SP
Brazil


Giovanna BIFULCO
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production
Federico II University, V. Delpino 1, 80137
Naples
Italy


Antonio BOSCO
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions
University of Naples Federico II, CREMOPAR Regione Campania
Italy


Ada BRAGHIERI
Scuola di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali, Alimentari ed Ambientali
Università della Basilicata, Via dell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100
Potenza
Italy


Narongsak CHAIYABUTR
Dairy Cattle Physiology Division, National Dairy Research
Institute, Karnal-13200
Haryana
India


Vongpasith CHANTHAKHOUN
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Forest Resources
Souphanouvong University
Laos


Giuseppe CRINGOLI
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions
University of Naples Federico II
CREMOPAR Regione Campania
Italy


Libertado C. CRUZ
Philippine Carabao Center (PCC)
Science City of Muñoz 3120
Nueva Ecija
Philippines


Gautam Kumar DEB
Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Program)
Graduate School of Gyeongsang National University and Animal Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar
Dhaka–1341
Bangladesh


Giuseppe DE ROSA
Dipartimento di Agraria
Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Università 133, 80055 Portici (NA)
Italy


Bianca GASPARRINI
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production
Federico II University, Via F. Delpino 1
80137 Naples
Italy


Fernando GRASSO
Dipartimento di Agraria
Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Università 133, 80055 Portici (NA)
Italy


Alessandra IANNUZZI
National Research Council (CNR)
Institute of Animal Production Systems in Mediterranean Environment (ISPAAM), Laboratory of Animal Cytogenetics and Gene Mapping
Naples
Italy


Leopoldo IANNUZZI
National Research Council (CNR)
Institute of Animal Production Systems in Mediterranean Environment (ISPAAM), Laboratory of Animal Cytogenetics and Gene Mapping
Naples
Italy


Pichad KHEJORNSART
Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science
Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 20004
Thailand


Il Keun KONG
Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Program)
Graduate School of Gyeongsang National University and Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences
Jinju 660-701, Gyeongnam
Republic of Korea


Maria Paola MAURELLI
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions
University of Naples Federico II
CREMOPAR Regione Campania
Italy


Claro N. MINGALA
Philippine Carabao Center (PCC)
Science City of Muñoz 3120
Nueva Ecija
Philippines


Fabio NAPOLITANO
Scuola di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali, Alimentari ed Ambientali
Università della Basilicata, Via dell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100
Potenza
Italy


Gianluca NEGLIA
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production
Federico II University, V. Delpino 1, 80137
Naples
Italy


Egil Robert ORSKOV
International Feed Resource Unit
Macaulay Land Use Research Institute
UK


Corrado PACELLI
Scuola di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali, Alimentari ed Ambientali
Università della Basilicata, Via dell’Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100
Potenza
Italy


Rangsun PARNPAI
Embryo Technology and Stem Cell Research Center
School of Biotechnology, Suranaree University of Technology
Nakhon Ratchasima 30000
Thailand


Alfredo PAUCIULLO
National Research Council (CNR)
Institute of Animal Production Systems in Mediterranean Environment (ISPAAM), Laboratory of Animal Cytogenetics and Gene Mapping
Naples
Italy


Ruangyot PILAJUN
Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC)
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University
Khon Kaen, 20004
Thailand


Giorgio Antonio PRESICCE
ARSIAL, Regione Lazio, Via R. Lanciani, 38 - 00161
Rome
Italy


Laura RINALDI
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions
University of Naples Federico II
CREMOPAR Regione Campania
Italy


Marina SANSINENA
Technical Department of Argentine Buffalo Breeders Association
International Consultant, Arcos 1325, 1426
Buenos Aires
Argentina


Vo Thi Kim THANH
Department of Animal Physiology
Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry
Vietnam


Ramesh C. UPADHYAY
Dairy Cattle Physiology Division
National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-13200
Haryana
India


Marvin A. VILLANUEVA
Philippine Carabao Center (PCC)
Science City of Muñoz 3120
Nueva Ecija
Philippines


M. WANAPAT
Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC)
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University
Khon Kaen, 20004
Thailand


Marco ZAVA
Technical Department of Argentine Buffalo Breeders Association
International Consultant, Arcos 1325, 1426
Buenos Aires
Argentina


Luigi ZICARELLI
Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria e Produzioni Animali - Università "Federico II" - Napoli
Via Delpino, 1 - 80137 Napoli
Italy




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