Nanotechnology promises new medical therapies, more rapid and sensitive diagnostic and investigative tools for normal and diseased tissues, and new materials for tissue engineering. This e-book highlights the major current uses, new technologies and future perspectives of nanotechnology in relation to medical applications. Sections in this e-book include nanobiological approaches to imaging, diagnosis and treatment of disease using targeted monoclonal antibodies and siRNA, the medical use of nanomaterials, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology for cell repair. The book also covers current problems associated with nanotechnology, including an understanding of issues related to toxicity and the environmental impact of nanoscale materials. The book should be of interest to biomedical technologists, medical doctors and students of taught courses in nanotechnology at both undergraduate and post-graduate (MSc) levels.