This volume presents different aspects related to bioactive compounds, starting with their natural state in raw sources, physicochemical characterization and employment in pharmacy and medicine. The volume is divided into three parts. The first part describes the chemicals structure of bioactive compounds from different natural sources such as olive oils, wines, and medicinal plants. Special attention has been given to identifying the bioactive composition within variations of these natural sources (for example, extra virgin, ordinary or lampante olive oils). The second part of the volume presents the principal methods used for detecting, identifying and quantifying bioactive compounds. Emphasis is given to the use of different types of sensors or biosensors, and multisensor systems in combination with analytical techniques. The final part explains the principal methods for protection of bioactive compounds and the implication of bioactive compounds in pharmacy. This volume is a useful guide for novice researchers interested in learning research methods to study bioactive compounds.