4D Fetal Echocardiography


Giuseppe Rizzo

DOI: 10.2174/97816080504441100101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-044-4, 2010
ISBN: 978-1-60805-634-7

Indexed in: EBSCO.

Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most frequent malformation in the human fetus and are the leading cause of mortality due to mal...[view complete introduction]
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Analysis of Acquired Volumes: Methodological Approach

- Pp. 50-61 (12)

Greggory R DeVore


The purpose of this paper is to review how 3D/4D echocardiographic images can be manipulated to maximize the information regarding cardiac structure to improve the diagnostic yield of congenital heart defects. The following topics are discussed: (1) the differences between 3D and 4D ultrasound; (2) basic imaging principles of fourdimensional ultrasound when using spatial-temporal image correlation, real-time volume display, and matrix array technology; (3) analysis of acquired volumes using X,Y and Z rotation, the transverse sweep, the spin technique, tomographic imaging, rendering, inversion, and B-flow. The conclusion is that while the 3D and 4D volumes are easy to acquire, the user must understand the number of tools available to enhance the examination of the fetal heart.

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