Interest in the effect of irradiation on the properties of constructional materials was appeared far back with the development of the first nuclear reactors. Since then, the experimental and theoretical studies of radiation destruction processes of pure and doped solid solutions began to develop intensively. As we know the main structural materials used in nuclear reactors, in the irradiation facilities and space exploration are metal alloys. Despite the relative simplicity of the crystal structure in metals the complex processes of formation and interaction of different types of defects under high-energy irradiation take place. Of the other substances such as, alkali metal halides have similar close-paced structure. However, the radiation resistance of metals and alkali halides is very different. The represented eBook provides a comprehensive overview of processes in these materials under the influence of radiation. A detailed description of the mechanisms of radiation defect formation and their evolution in alloys and doped alkali halides gives a clear picture of the radiation-stimulated processes and phenomena in these materials, and allows us to understand the reason for their different radiation resistance. The eBook contributes to the baggage of scientific knowledge about the effects of radiation on solid materials and represents great interest not only for the specialists in the field of radiation physics and radiation material, but may also be useful for students and teachers of higher educational institutions specializing in this area and related fields.
O. Yu. Begak
Institute of Metrology of the DI Mendeleyev,
St. Petersburg, Russian Federation
In the eBook the processes occurring in solid solutions on the basis of metals and alkaline halide under the high-energy radiation are discussed. Metals and alkali halides have a similar close-packed crystalline structure but strongly differ in their radiation resistance. Metals and alloys are radiation-resistant materials, and alkali halides are rather sensitive to radiation. Despite such differences many processes occurring during irradiation are carried out by the identical mechanisms in both types of materials.
The most important result of irradiation is the generation of super-equilibrium concentration of point defects which can be several orders of magnitude greater than the thermal equilibrium concentration. The degree of super saturation of point defects is the main driving force of radiation-stimulated processes in solid solutions. The migration of radiation defects and solute atoms, their interaction among themselves and with the structural damage of the crystal lattice determine the entire spectrum of radiation-stimulated processes. We consider the basic processes and phenomena in crystalline solid solutions under irradiation. These include radiation-induced diffusion, segregation and decomposition of the solid solution, which significantly alter the structure of the material, its physical, mechanical and other properties. Some important radiation induced phenomena, such as radiation-induced swelling, void formation, growth, embrittlement, creep, and the behavior of hydrogen, deuterium and helium in irradiated materials require separate reviews.
St. Petersburg State Technological Institute
List of Contributors