Genome, Epigenome and Transcriptome Profiling of Pluripotent Stem Cells
- Pp. 56-67 (12)Henry Chung and Kuldip S. Sidhu
Pluripotent stem cells are unique candidates for regenerative medicine owing to their differential and self renewal capabilities. With the rapid development of stem cell differentiation methodologies, a number of functional cell types have already been generated, though replacement of damaged or diseased cells/tissues/organs remains an exciting and challenging task. The most common pluripotent cell type are embryonic stem cells (ESCs), however in recent years, several pluripotent cell types have been emerged – nuclear transfer ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Both of these cell types were generated for therapeutic cloning, hence facilitating the transition from lab bench to patients. However, before clinical implementation of pluripotent stem cell based therapies, it must firstly pass several tests that evaluate the long-term safety, with respect to genetic stability. Both nuclear transfer ESCs and iPSCs share many common features but due to their different origins, exhibit slight differences at the epigenomic and transcriptomic levels. This chapter attempts to elucidate some of the many differences that occur at each of the genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic levels.