Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Various Types of Cancers
- Pp. 201-232 (32)Sanath Kumar and Mira M. Shah
Cancer is a multistep process in which multiple genetic changes result in the transformation of normal cells into malignant cells. These genetic alterations are a result of various environmental or endogenous DNA-damaging agents. They can be inherited through germ cells or more commonly acquired as somatic mutations. Somatic mutations include point mutations, chromosomal translocations, deletions, inversions or amplifications. These genetic changes lead to the malignant transformation of normal cells through self-sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to growth-inhibitory signals, evasion of apoptosis, replicative immortality, sustained angiogenesis, tissue invasion and metastasis. Characteristic genetic alterations have been identified in various types of cancers. This review focuses on the key molecular mechanisms underlying various human cancers.