Deliberative Mini-Publics and User-Driven Innovation in the Public Sector: Comparing Underpinnings, Procedures and Outcomes
- Pp. 23-45 (23)Marja-Liisa Niinikoski and Maija Setälä
In this chapter, two different instruments of involving citizens and users in public sector are analyzed. More precisely, we focus on deliberative mini-publics and user-driven innovations. The chapter puts forward two empirical cases where these instruments have been experimented in Finland. These cases illustrate how the use of these instruments offers new roles and opportunities for citizens to influence policies and their implementation. The analysis sheds light on the underpinnings, procedures and outcomes of these instruments, and focuses on possible roles of citizens in public sector innovation. The cases analyzed in this chapter show that the impact of citizen involvement does not necessarily depend so much on the type of instrument used in involving citizens. Rather, openness and receptiveness by policy-makers appear to be more important than the intentions behind the used techniques. Furthermore, our case studies suggest that there may sometimes be trade-offs between the goals of inclusion and innovation capacity.