Advances in Anti-Cancer Drug Development Targeting Carbonic Anhydrase IX and XII
- Pp. 3-42 (40)Mam Y. Mboge, Robert McKenna and Susan C. Frost
The microenvironment within a solid tumor is heterogeneous with regions being both acidic and hypoxic. As a result of this, cancer cells upregulate genes that allow survival in such environments. Some of these genes are pH regulatory factors, including carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) and in some cases XII (CA XII). CA IX helps to maintain normal cytoplasmic pH (pHi) while simultaneously contributing to the extracellular pH (pHe). CA XII is also thought to be responsible for stabilizing pHe at physiological conditions. Extracellular acidification of the tumor microenvironment promotes local invasion and metastasis while decreasing the effectiveness of adjuvant therapies, thus contributing to poor cancer clinical outcomes. In this review, we describe the properties of CA IX and CA XII that substantiate their potential use as anticancer targets. We also discuss the current status of CA isoform-selective inhibitor development and patents of CA IX/XII targeted inhibitors that show potential for treating aggressive tumors. Some of the recently published patents discussed include sulfonamide-based small molecule inhibitors including derivatives of boron cluster compounds; metal complexes of poly(carboxyl)amine-containing ligands; nitroimidazole-, ureidosulfonamide-, and coumarin-based compounds; as well as G250 and A610 monoclonal antibodies for cancer treatment.