Analytical Microextraction Techniques


by

M. Valcárcel, S. Cárdenas, R. Lucena

DOI: 10.2174/97816810837971170101
eISBN: 978-1-68108-379-7, 2016
ISBN: 978-1-68108-380-3



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Indexed in: EBSCO.

Sample treatment has been the focus of intensive research in the last 20 years since it still remains a bottleneck in precise analytic...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i-ii (2)

Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard

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Preface

- Pp. iii-iv (2)

Miguel Valcárcel, Soledad Cárdenas and Rafael Lucena

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List of Contributors

- Pp. v-vii (3)

Miguel Valcárcel, Soledad Cárdenas and Rafael Lucena

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Green Microextraction

- Pp. 3-27 (25)

Sergio Armenta, Miguel de la Guardia and Jacek Namiesnik

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Novel Sol-Gel Sorbents in Sorptive Microextraction

- Pp. 28-69 (42)

Abuzar Kabir and Kenneth G. Furton

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Ionic Liquids in the Microextraction Context

- Pp. 70-134 (65)

María J. Trujillo-Rodríguez, Verónica Pino, Juan H. Ayala and Ana M. Afonso

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Application of Nanomaterials in Solid and Liquid Microextraction

- Pp. 135-166 (32)

Yolanda Moliner-Martínez, Pascual Serra-Mora, Jorge Verdú-Andrés, Carmen Molins-Legua, Rosa Herráez-Hernández and Pilar Campíns-Falcó

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Principles and Developments of Solid-Phase Microextraction

- Pp. 167-218 (52)

Adam Kloskowski, Łukasz Marcinkowski, Francisco Pena-Pereira and Jacek Namieśnik

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Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction and Related Techniques

- Pp. 219-240 (22)

José Manuel Florêncio Nogueira

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Microextraction by Packed Sorbent (MEPS): Theory, Developments and Applications

- Pp. 241-253 (13)

Mohammad Mahdi Moein, Abbi Abdel-Rehim and Mohamed Abdel-Rehim

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Miniaturized Dispersive Solid-phase Extraction

- Pp. 254-276 (23)

Guillermo Lasarte-Aragonés, Rafael Lucena, Soledad Cárdenas and Miguel Valcárcel

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Solid Phase Extraction Based on Magnetic Nanoparticles

- Pp. 277-305 (29)

Ángel Ríos and Mohammed Zougagh

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Solid-Phase Microextraction Under the Thin Film Format

- Pp. 306-326 (21)

M. Roldán-Pijuán, R. Lucena, S. Cárdenas and M. Valcárcel

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Single-drop Microextraction and Related Techniques

- Pp. 327-379 (53)

Francisco Pena-Pereira, Isela Lavilla and Carlos Bendicho

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Membrane-Based Microextraction Techniques with Emphasis on Hollow-fiber Microextraction

- Pp. 380-405 (26)

Jan Åke Jönsson and Estelle Larsson

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Subject Index

- Pp. 406-414 (9)

Miguel Valcárcel, Soledad Cárdenas and Rafael Lucena

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Foreword

Sample preparation involving extraction is normally required prior to analysis by chromatography, electrophoresis, or mass spectrometry. The main purposes of the sample preparation are to clean-up the sample, to make it compatible with the analytical instrumentation, and to enrich the analytes of interest. Sample clean-up is intended to remove major matrix components from the sample, which can interfere with the analyte detection or which can reduce the performance of the analytical instrumentation. Enrichment of the analytes is intended to improve the trace level detectability.

Most sample preparation in routine laboratories today is performed with classical extraction techniques, like solid-phase extraction or liquid-liquid extraction. However, in the scientific literature, a large number of research papers have been published on the development of microextraction techniques. The difference between the classical extraction techniques and the microextraction techniques is the mass / volume of the extraction phase, which has been substantially down-scaled in the latter.

The field of microextraction was essentially initiated in 1990 by Professor Janusz Pawliszyn and his co-workers by the introduction of solid-phase microextraction (SPME). In the years after this, a large number of scientific papers related to SPME emerged, SPME became commercially available, and several other microextraction techniques different from SPME were introduced. In general, a main driving force for all the activities in the field of microextraction has been to reduce the consumption of hazardous organic solvents and other materials required for sample preparation (green chemistry). In addition, the development of different microextraction techniques has been motivated by reduced sample volumes, reduced extraction times, improved analyte enrichments, improved sample clean-up, and improved compatibility with analytical instrumentation.

Definitely microextraction techniques will replace traditional methods in the future, but this will take time. Meanwhile, a lot of progress takes place, and microextraction is currently a very active field of research within analytical chemistry. New techniques and methods based on these are continuously being developed. Some of them are based solid-phase extraction principles, and includes solid-phase microextraction, stir bar sorptive extraction, microextraction by packed sorbent, dispersive micro-solid phase extraction, magnetic solid phase extraction, and thin film extraction. Others are based on liquid-liquid extraction principles, like single-drop microextraction, membrane-based microextraction, hollow-fibre microextraction and dispersive liquid-phase microextraction. In addition to all this, new materials are also entering the field of microextraction, like nanoparticles, ionic liquids and novel solid gels. All this you can read about in this e-book, which is a very comprehensive guide to the most important developments of analytical microextraction techniques. Enjoy the reading!

Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard
School of Pharmacy
University of Oslo
Norway


Preface

The miniaturization of the preliminary steps of the chemical measurement process is one of the challenges of Analytical Chemistry as it clearly facilitates the reduction of dimensions of the whole analytical process, being also favorable for the design of portable analyzers and opens up a door for on-site analysis. Among the substeps included in sample treatment, extraction techniques are unavoidable for the majority of the samples, either for analyte preconcentration, interference removal or conditioning prior to instrumental analysis. Therefore, their miniaturization must be systematically considered.

The new microextraction techniques, including the solid and liquid formats have emerged in this context. The advances and innovations in this field affect not only on the units designed for analytes isolation but also on the new materials that are used. They are characterized to be more efficient than classical ones, thus yielding better enrichment factors. This results in an enhanced sensitivity/selectivity of the whole analytical process.

The Anaytical Microextraction Techniques ebook is fully devoted to this subject matter of increasing interest in the last decades. It is divided into three parts. The first one, composed of four chapters, deals with the general aspects of microextraction techniques in the green chemistry context. It also affords the use of new phases, which results in more efficient devices, fully compatible with the green chemistry principles.

The second part of this ebook is fully devoted to micro solid phase extraction. It starts with the reference technique in this context: solid phase microextraction. Next, fully consolidated formats such as stir bar sorptive extraction and microextraction by packed sorbents are afforded. Dispersive solid phase extraction is usually employed for interference removal. However, its applicability for analytes isolation and preconcentration has been recently evaluated. In this ebook, it is considered in two chapters, one of them dealing with the use of magnetic nanoparticles. Their role is crucial to simplify the extraction process avoiding the need for centrifugation and/or filtration. This section concludes with a chapter devoted to thin film microextraction.

The liquid phase microextraction is compiled in section 3 where single drop and membrane-based ones are presented. Single drop microextraction was the first miniaturized technique developed in the liquid-liquid format, reducing the volume of solvent needed to the low microliter level. Since its proposal, several alternatives have been reported aimed at increasing the versatility of the initial approach. The use of porous materials (flat membranes or hollow fiber) as support of the liquid phase, allows the use of large volumes of solvent, which results in higher enrichment factors.

This ebook would serve as a useful reference to readers to provide the current state of the art of this research area as well as to stimulate the developments of innovative approaches on the topic.

Miguel Valcárcel, Soledad Cárdenas and Rafael Lucena
Department of Analytical Chemistry
Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry
University of Córdoba
Córdoba
Spain

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
M. Valcárcel
Department of Analytical Chemistry
Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry
University of Córdoba
Córdoba
Spain


S. Cárdenas
Department of Analytical Chemistry
Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry
University of Córdoba
Córdoba
Spain


R. Lucena
Department of Analytical Chemistry
Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry
University of Córdoba
Córdoba
Spain




Contributor(s):
Abuzar Kabir
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
International Forensic Research Institute, Florida International University
11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, Florida 33199
USA


Adam Kloskowski
Department of Physical Chemistry
Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry
Narutowicza Str.11/12, Gdansk 80-233
Poland


Ángel Ríos
Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Technology
University of Castilla-La Mancha
E- 13004, Ciudad Real
Spain


Carmen Molins-Legua
Department of Analytical Chemistry
Faculty of Chemistry, University of Valencia
Dr. Moliner 50, 46100-Burjassot, Valencia
Spain


Carlos Bendicho
Departamento de Química Analítica y Alimentaria, Área de Química Analítica
Facultad de Química, Universidad de Vigo
Campus As Lagoas-Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo
Spain


Francisco Pena-Pereira
Departamento de Química Analítica y Alimentaria, Área de Química Analítica
Facultad de Química, Universidad de Vigo
Campus As Lagoas-Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo
Spain


Francisco Pena-Pereira
Department of Analytical Chemistry
Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry
Narutowicza Str.11/12, Gdansk 80-233
Poland
/
Analytical and Food Chemistry Department
University of Vigo, Faculty of Chemistry
Campus As Lagoas-Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo
Spain


Guillermo Lasarte-Aragonés
Department of Analytical Chemistry
Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building (Annex), Campus de Rabanales, University of Córdoba
Córdoba
Spain


Isela Lavilla
Departamento de Química Analítica y Alimentaria, Área de Química Analítica
Facultad de Química, Universidad de Vigo
Campus As Lagoas-Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo
Spain


Jacek Namiesnik
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry
Gdansk University of Technology
Narutowwicza Str. 11/12, Gdansk 80-233
Poland


Jan Åke Jönsson
Center for Analysis and Synthesis, Department of Chemistry
Lund University
P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund
Sweden


Jorge Verdú Andrés
Department of Analytical Chemistry
Faculty of Chemistry, University of Valencia
Dr. Moliner 50, 46100-Burjassot, Valencia
Spain


José Manuel Florêncio Nogueira
Chemistry and Biochemistry Department and Centre of Chemistry and Biochemistry
University of Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences
Campo Grande, Ed. C8, 1749-016 Lisbon
Portugal


Juan H. Ayala
Departamento de Química
Área de Química Analítica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL)
La Laguna (Tenerife), 38206
Spain


Łukasz Marcinkowski
Department of Physical Chemistry
Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry
Narutowicza Str.11/12, Gdansk 80-233
Poland


Miguel Valcárcel
Department of Analytical Chemistry
Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry
Marie Curie Building, Campus de Rabanales, University of Córdoba,14071 Córdoba
Spain


Miguel Roldán-Pijuán
Department of Analytical Chemistry
Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry
Marie Curie Building, Campus de Rabanales, University of Córdoba,14071 Córdoba
Spain


María J. Trujillo−Rodríguez
Departamento de Química
Área de Química Analítica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL)
La Laguna (Tenerife), 38206
Spain


Miguel de la Guardia
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Research Building
University of Valencia
50th Dr. Moliner St., E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia
Spain


Miguel Valcárcel
Department of Analytical Chemistry
Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building (Annex), Campus de Rabanales, University of Córdoba
Córdoba
Spain


Mohammed Zougagh
Regional Institute for Applied Chemistry Research
IRICA
E-13004, Ciudad Real
Spain
/
Albacete Science and Technology Park
E-02006 Albacete
Spain


Mohamed Abdel-Rehim
Department of Analytical Chemistry
Stockholm University
SE10691 Stockholm
Sweden


Mohammad Mahdi Moein
Department of Analytical Chemistry
Stockholm University
SE10691 Stockholm
Sweden


Pascual Serra-Mora
Department of Analytical Chemistry
Faculty of Chemistry, University of Valencia
Dr. Moliner 50, 46100-Burjassot, Valencia
Spain


Pilar Campíns-Falcó
Department of Analytical Chemistry
Faculty of Chemistry, University of Valencia
Dr. Moliner 50, 46100-Burjassot, Valencia
Spain


Rafael Lucena
Department of Analytical Chemistry
Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building (Annex), Campus de Rabanales, University of Córdoba
Córdoba
Spain


Rosa Herráez-Hernández
Department of Analytical Chemistry
Faculty of Chemistry, University of Valencia
Dr. Moliner 50, 46100-Burjassot, Valencia
Spain


Sergio Armenta
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Research Building
University of Valencia
50th Dr. Moliner St., E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia
Spain


Soledad Cárdenas
Department of Analytical Chemistry
Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building (Annex), Campus de Rabanales, University of Córdoba
Córdoba
Spain


Verónica Pino
Departamento de Química
Área de Química Analítica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL)
La Laguna (Tenerife), 38206
Spain


Yolanda Moliner-Martínez
Department of Analytical Chemistry
Faculty of Chemistry, University of Valencia
Dr. Moliner 50, 46100-Burjassot, Valencia
Spain




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