PAH Metabolites in Fish and Invertebrates: Analysis and Endocrine Disruptive Potential
- Pp. 111-134 (24)Denise Fernandes, Anna Marqueno, Cinta Porte and Montserrat Sole
This chapter describes the metabolism of PAHs to oxidized and conjugated metabolites by both fish and invertebrates. So far, a wide range of metabolites have been described and a number of studies have alerted for the potential of phenol and quinone derivatives, as well as other reactive intermediates, to exert toxicity in early life stages of fish and reproductive disorders in adults. The endocrine disruptive properties have been mainly related to action at the receptor level, due to structural similarities of PAH and their metabolites with natural hormones, and also to interaction with key steroidogenic enzymes, which are present in vertebrate and invertebrate groups. The fast development of new analytical techniques, based on the use of high resolution mass spectrometry, will lead in the near future to the detection of a wider range of oxidized PAHs in abiotic matrices (i.e. water, sediment) and hopefully in biota, bringing along new research challenges.