Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research – Diabetes and Obesity

Volume 4

by

Atta-ur-Rahman

DOI: 10.2174/97816810844591170401
eISBN: 978-1-68108-445-9, 2019
ISBN: 978-1-68108-446-6
ISSN: 2467-9607 (Print)
ISSN: 2352-3220 (Online)





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Hydrogen Sulfide and Carbohydrate Metabolism

- Pp. 226-258 (33)

Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran and Asghar Ghasemi

Abstract

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important gasotransmitter with diverse biological actions in the body and has been receiving much attention over the last two decades. It has been characterized as a key regulator of cardiovascular homoeostasis, cell growth and differentiation, mitochondrial biogenesis, adipose tissue metabolism, inflammation and liver function. H2S-donor molecules have hence been considered as being potential therapeutic options for a variety of human diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, obesity, oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. It has been shown that huge amount of endogenous H2S originates in the liver, and may be involved in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. H2S is considered as an important mediator of carbohydrate homeostasis. H2S production and bioavailability are impaired during development of obesity, diabetes and its complications, highlights the potential therapeutic effects of H2S in metabolic syndrome. This issue is however controversial due to some findings that show increased H2S disturbs pancreatic β-cell function and may be responsible for reduced insulin secretion. H2S also contributes to increased blood glucose levels by accelerating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, effects which could intensify hyperglycemia in diabetes. Furthermore, reduced basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was observed following treatment of adipocytes with H2S; in contrast, the protective effect of H2S on β-cell function against a high-fat diet, as well as its insulin-sensitizing properties has been reported in both in vitro and in vivo models of insulin resistance. Regarding the increasing interest in therapeutic applications of H2S-donors in cardiometabolic disorders, its potential unexpected effects on glucose/insulin metabolism, especially in the case of diabetes, should be considered. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge available on exogenous and endogenous H2S and carbohydrate metabolism, including both regulation of hepatic glucose production and hepatic and peripheral glucose uptake and β-cell function.

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